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Table 2 Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with high and low education levels

From: Education level as a predictor of survival in patients with multiple myeloma

Variables Low education level High education level P
N = 535 (%) N = 226 (%)
Age      < 0.001
 < 60 261 48.8 144 63.7  
 ≥ 60 274 51.2 82 36.3  
Sex      0.002
 Male 284 53.1 147 65.0  
 Female 251 46.9 79 35.0  
Smoking      0.183
 Yes 158 29.5 56 24.8  
 No 377 70.5 170 75.2  
Marital status      0.657
 Married 515 96.3 216 95.6  
 Other 20 3.7 10 4.4  
Residential area      < 0.001
 Urban 326 60.9 214 94.7  
 Rural 209 39.1 12 5.3  
Distance to hospital      0.287
 Same province 458 85.6 200 88.5  
 Different province 77 14.4 26 11.5  
Occupational status      < 0.001
 Employed 68 13.1 76 33.8  
 Unemployed 453 86.9 149 66.2  
Average annual income      < 0.001
 < $42,500 USD 464 94.5 131 59.3  
 ≥ $42,500 USD 27 5.5 90 40.7  
Insurance status      < 0.001
 Any insurance 88 17.8 86 39.6  
 No insurance 405 82.2 131 60.4  
Comorbidity      < 0.003
 Yes 362 67.7 127 56.2  
 No 173 32.3 99 43.8  
Time to diagnosis      < 0.001
 ≤ 1 month 100 18.7 79 35.0  
 > 1 months 435 81.3 147 65.0  
ISS stage      0.014
 I/II 351 67.5 172 76.4  
 III 169 32.5 53 23.6  
LDH
 ≥ 240 U/L 115 23.1 26 13.0 0.003
 < 240 U/L 383 76.9 174 87.0  
Cytogenetics      0.768
 High risk 96 24.5 38 23.3  
 Standard risk 296 75.5 125 76.7  
Receipt of transplant      < 0.001
 Yes 149 27.9 134 59.3  
 No 386 72.2 92 40.7  
Regular treatment      < 0.001
 Yes 325 60.7 198 87.6  
 No 210 39.3 28 12.4  
  1. ISS international staging system, LDH lactate dehydrogenase