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Table 3 Clinico-pathological predictors of invasive component in patients with preoperative needle biopsy-based diagnosis of DCIS

From: Predictive factors for the presence of invasive components in patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ based on preoperative biopsy

VariableRisk for invasive component
Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis
HR (95% CI)pHR (95% CI)p
Age (> 50)0.75 (0.36–1.59)0.4580.82 (0.38–1.79)0.623
US tumor size (> 2 cm)1.31 (0.61–2.82)0.4891.40 (0.60–3.26)0.441
US finding (mass)1.52 (0.19–12.10)0.693  
Mammographic finding (microcalcification)0.73 (0.34–1.56)0.4160.83 (0.36–1.91)0.666
Multifocality (present)0.95 (0.39–2.31)0.906  
Nuclear grade (high)2.39 (1.05–5.42)0.0382.86 (1.14–7.14)0.025
Estrogen receptor
(positive)
0.66 (0.30–1.45)0.305  
Progesterone receptor
(positive)
0.66 (0.31–1.38)0.266  
HER-2(overexpression)1.05 (0.49–2.22)0.904  
Ki-67 (> 14%)1.32 (0.48–3.62)0.589  
Type of operation
(Mastectomy)
2.25 (1.00–5.05)0.0502.27 (0.94–5.50)0.069
  1. Abbreviations DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ, US Ultrasonography, HER2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2