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Table 6 Univariable analysis of breast cancer-specific survival

From: Influence of pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading vs. standard fasting on tumor proliferation and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients ─ a randomized trial

VariableWhole study cohort (n = 61)ER-positive patients (n = 50)
Event/at risk (% survival)Log rank PHRa95% CIEvent/at risk (% survival)Log rank PHRa95% CI
Pre-operative randomization
 Fasting1/35 (97) 1 0/29 (100) 1 
 Carbohydrates4/26 (85)0.0864.40.88 to 21.74/21 (81)0.015aa
Nodal status
 N01/43 (98)   1/33 (82) 1 
 N+4/18 (78)0.0124.41.05 to 18.53/17 (82)0.0802.800.63 to 12.6
Tumor size      
 T10/45 (100) 1 0/40 (100) 1 
 T25/16 (69)< 0.00015.51.32 to 23.14/10 (60)< 0.0001aa
Nottingham grade b 0.556   0.352  
 Grade 10/11 (100) 1 0/11 (100) 1 
 Grade 23/30 (90) aa3/30 (90) aa
 Grade 32/20 (90) aa1/9 (89) aa
Estrogen receptor    
 Positive (≥ 1%)4/50 (92) 1 
 Negative (< 1%)1/11 (91)0.8520.640.079 to 5.21
Progesterone receptor
 Positive (≥10%)4/41 (90) 1 3/37 (92) 1 
 Negative (< 10%)1/20 (95)0.5430.510.057 to 4.591/13 (92)0.940.930.1 to 8.9
HER2
 Negative (0 to 1+)4/57 (93) 1 3/49 (94) 1 
 Positive (2+ to 3+)1/4 (75)0.2483.370.38 to 30.21/1 (0)0.00111.71.31 to 105.1
MAI
 < 103/41 (93) 1 3/39 (92) 1 
 ≥ 102/19 (90)0.6451.50.25 to 9.12/10 (80)0.234.10.6 to 29.3
MAI
 < 31/16 (94) 1 1/16 (88) 1 
 ≥ 34/44 (91)0.7351.460.16 to 13.03/33 (85)0.761.40.15 to 13.8
PPH3
 < 132/35 (94) 1 2/35 (94) 1 
 > 133/26 (89)0.4262.00.34 to 12.22/15 (87)0.402.30.32 to 16.1
Ki67
 < 150/26 (100) 1 0/25 (100) 1 
 ≥ 155/34 (82)0.0404/24 (83)0.014aa
Ki67
 < 301/38 (97) 1 1/37 (95) 1 
 ≥ 304/22 (82)0.0337.50.84 to 67.53/12 (75)0.0239.91.03 to 95.3
TILs
 Negative4/55 (93) 1 3/45 (93) 1 
 Positive1/6 (83)0.4792.160.24 to 19.41/4 (75)0.243.60.37 to 34.6
Luminal statusc
 Luminal A3/39 (92) 1 2/28 (93) 1 
 Luminal B2/22 (91)0.8471.20.20 to 7.412/22 (91)0.7771.330.19 to 9.42
Chemo therapy
 Yes5/39 (87) 1 3/20 (85) 1 
 No0/22 (100)0.0890.220.024 to 1.951/30 (97)0.150.220.023 to 2.10
Radiation therapy
 Yes3/43 (93) 1 2/38 (95) 1 
 No2/17 (88)0.4991.840.33 to 11.02/12 (83)0.193.90.48 to 24.1
Endocrine therapy
 Yes5/39 (87) 1 4/36 (89) 1 
 No0/22 (100)0.0890.0240 to 46.40/14 (100)0.200.030 to 262
BMI-25d
 < 251/31 (97) 1 1/26 (96) 1 
 ≥ 253/23 (87)0.1774.190.44 to 40.32/20 (90)0.3982.700.25 to 29.8
BMI-75pe
 < 75p2/41 (95) 1 2/36 (94) 1 
 ≥ 75p2/13 (85)0.2183.200.45 to 22.81/10 (90)0.6221.810.16 to 20.0
Smoking
 -Never smoked3/15 (80) 1 2/12 (83) 1 
 -Former smoker0/23 (100) 0.003Inf.0/20 (100) 0.003Inf.
 -Ongoing smoking0/14 (100)0.0200.003Inf0/12 (100)0.0520.003Inf.
  1. BMI Body mass index, HRT Hormonal replacement therapy, T Pathological tumor size in mm or category, LN Lymph node, N0 Node negative, N+ Node positive (assessed by pathologists), HER-2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, MAI Mitotic activity index, TILs Tumor infiltrating leucocytes, PPH3 Phosphorylated phospho-histone 3
  2. aHR (95% CI) was not computed, as the equation did not converge and no events occurred in one or more categories
  3. bHistological grading was performed according to the Nottingham algorithm
  4. cLuminal A = ER+/HER2−/Ki67 < 15% and Luminal B = ER+/HER2−/Ki67 ≥ 15%
  5. dBMI-25 represents a dichotomized BMI < 25 or ≥ 25 on the BMI scale
  6. eBMI-75p represents a dichotomized BMI with cut off < /≥ 75 percentile, i.e., </≥ 26.8 on the BMI scale