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Table 6 Univariable analysis of breast cancer-specific survival

From: Influence of pre-operative oral carbohydrate loading vs. standard fasting on tumor proliferation and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients ─ a randomized trial

Variable Whole study cohort (n = 61) ER-positive patients (n = 50)
Event/at risk (% survival) Log rank P HRa 95% CI Event/at risk (% survival) Log rank P HRa 95% CI
Pre-operative randomization
 Fasting 1/35 (97)   1   0/29 (100)   1  
 Carbohydrates 4/26 (85) 0.086 4.4 0.88 to 21.7 4/21 (81) 0.015 a a
Nodal status
 N0 1/43 (98)     1/33 (82)   1  
 N+ 4/18 (78) 0.012 4.4 1.05 to 18.5 3/17 (82) 0.080 2.80 0.63 to 12.6
Tumor size       
 T1 0/45 (100)   1   0/40 (100)   1  
 T2 5/16 (69) < 0.0001 5.5 1.32 to 23.1 4/10 (60) < 0.0001 a a
Nottingham grade b   0.556     0.352   
 Grade 1 0/11 (100)   1   0/11 (100)   1  
 Grade 2 3/30 (90)   a a 3/30 (90)   a a
 Grade 3 2/20 (90)   a a 1/9 (89)   a a
Estrogen receptor     
 Positive (≥ 1%) 4/50 (92)   1  
 Negative (< 1%) 1/11 (91) 0.852 0.64 0.079 to 5.21
Progesterone receptor
 Positive (≥10%) 4/41 (90)   1   3/37 (92)   1  
 Negative (< 10%) 1/20 (95) 0.543 0.51 0.057 to 4.59 1/13 (92) 0.94 0.93 0.1 to 8.9
HER2
 Negative (0 to 1+) 4/57 (93)   1   3/49 (94)   1  
 Positive (2+ to 3+) 1/4 (75) 0.248 3.37 0.38 to 30.2 1/1 (0) 0.001 11.7 1.31 to 105.1
MAI
 < 10 3/41 (93)   1   3/39 (92)   1  
 ≥ 10 2/19 (90) 0.645 1.5 0.25 to 9.1 2/10 (80) 0.23 4.1 0.6 to 29.3
MAI
 < 3 1/16 (94)   1   1/16 (88)   1  
 ≥ 3 4/44 (91) 0.735 1.46 0.16 to 13.0 3/33 (85) 0.76 1.4 0.15 to 13.8
PPH3
 < 13 2/35 (94)   1   2/35 (94)   1  
 > 13 3/26 (89) 0.426 2.0 0.34 to 12.2 2/15 (87) 0.40 2.3 0.32 to 16.1
Ki67
 < 15 0/26 (100)   1   0/25 (100)   1  
 ≥ 15 5/34 (82) 0.040 4/24 (83) 0.014 a a
Ki67
 < 30 1/38 (97)   1   1/37 (95)   1  
 ≥ 30 4/22 (82) 0.033 7.5 0.84 to 67.5 3/12 (75) 0.023 9.9 1.03 to 95.3
TILs
 Negative 4/55 (93)   1   3/45 (93)   1  
 Positive 1/6 (83) 0.479 2.16 0.24 to 19.4 1/4 (75) 0.24 3.6 0.37 to 34.6
Luminal statusc
 Luminal A 3/39 (92)   1   2/28 (93)   1  
 Luminal B 2/22 (91) 0.847 1.2 0.20 to 7.41 2/22 (91) 0.777 1.33 0.19 to 9.42
Chemo therapy
 Yes 5/39 (87)   1   3/20 (85)   1  
 No 0/22 (100) 0.089 0.22 0.024 to 1.95 1/30 (97) 0.15 0.22 0.023 to 2.10
Radiation therapy
 Yes 3/43 (93)   1   2/38 (95)   1  
 No 2/17 (88) 0.499 1.84 0.33 to 11.0 2/12 (83) 0.19 3.9 0.48 to 24.1
Endocrine therapy
 Yes 5/39 (87)   1   4/36 (89)   1  
 No 0/22 (100) 0.089 0.024 0 to 46.4 0/14 (100) 0.20 0.03 0 to 262
BMI-25d
 < 25 1/31 (97)   1   1/26 (96)   1  
 ≥ 25 3/23 (87) 0.177 4.19 0.44 to 40.3 2/20 (90) 0.398 2.70 0.25 to 29.8
BMI-75pe
 < 75p 2/41 (95)   1   2/36 (94)   1  
 ≥ 75p 2/13 (85) 0.218 3.20 0.45 to 22.8 1/10 (90) 0.622 1.81 0.16 to 20.0
Smoking
 -Never smoked 3/15 (80)   1   2/12 (83)   1  
 -Former smoker 0/23 (100)   0.003 Inf. 0/20 (100)   0.003 Inf.
 -Ongoing smoking 0/14 (100) 0.020 0.003 Inf 0/12 (100) 0.052 0.003 Inf.
  1. BMI Body mass index, HRT Hormonal replacement therapy, T Pathological tumor size in mm or category, LN Lymph node, N0 Node negative, N+ Node positive (assessed by pathologists), HER-2 Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, MAI Mitotic activity index, TILs Tumor infiltrating leucocytes, PPH3 Phosphorylated phospho-histone 3
  2. aHR (95% CI) was not computed, as the equation did not converge and no events occurred in one or more categories
  3. bHistological grading was performed according to the Nottingham algorithm
  4. cLuminal A = ER+/HER2−/Ki67 < 15% and Luminal B = ER+/HER2−/Ki67 ≥ 15%
  5. dBMI-25 represents a dichotomized BMI < 25 or ≥ 25 on the BMI scale
  6. eBMI-75p represents a dichotomized BMI with cut off < /≥ 75 percentile, i.e., </≥ 26.8 on the BMI scale