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Table 2 Association between furosemide use after diagnosis and esophageal or gastric cancer mortality

From: Furosemide use and survival in patients with esophageal or gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study

  All patients Restricted to any diagnosis of hypertension/edema/MI/HFa
  Patients Deaths Person years Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjustedb HR (95%CI) P-value (trend) Patients Deaths Person years Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjustedb HR (95%CI) P-value (trend)
Esophageal
 Non-user 2365 1625 4336 1.00 (ref. cat.) 1.00 (ref. cat.)   1097 763 1747 1.00 (ref. cat.) 1.00 (ref. cat.)  
 User 343 219 471 1.47 (1.27, 1.69) 1.28 (1.10, 1.50) 0.002 233 148 285 1.29 (1.08, 1.55) 1.07 (0.88, 1.30) 0.502
 1–12 prescriptions 270 184 361 1.40 (1.20, 1.63) 1.23 (1.04, 1.45) (< 0.001) 182 122 227 1.23 (1.02, 1.50) 1.03 (0.83, 1.26) (0.267)
 ≥ 12 prescriptions 73 35 110 2.02 (1.44, 2.84) 1.74 (1.22, 2.49)   51 26 59 1.69 (1.13, 2.52) 1.41 (0.92, 2.16)  
 1–365 DDDs 266 180 347 1.42 (1.21, 1.65) 1.25 (1.06, 1.47) (0.001) 175 117 214 1.24 (1.02, 1.51) 1.03 (0.84, 1.28) (0.326)
 ≥ 365 DDDs 77 39 124 1.76 (1.28, 2.43) 1.52 (1.08, 2.13)   58 31 71 1.53 (1.06, 2.21) 1.27 (0.86, 1.88)  
Gastric
 Non-user 2005 1268 4558 1.00 (ref. cat.) 1.00 (ref. cat.)   906 541 1978 1.00 (ref. cat.) 1.00 (ref. cat.)  
 User 372 199 612 1.38 (1.19, 1.60) 1.27 (1.08, 1.50) 0.004 264 138 440 1.36 (1.13, 1.64) 1.18 (0.96, 1.46) 0.125
 1–12 prescriptions 263 161 382 1.38 (1.17, 1.63) 1.26 (1.06, 1.50) (0.005) 181 108 274 1.31 (1.07, 1.62) 1.14 (0.91, 1.43) (0.079)
 ≥ 12 prescriptions 109 38 230 1.37 (0.99, 1.91) 1.35 (0.96, 1.91)   83 30 166 1.56 (1.07, 2.29) 1.38 (0.92, 2.07)  
 1–365 DDDs 259 155 364 1.39 (1.18, 1.65) 1.26 (1.06, 1.51) (0.006) 175 102 251 1.32 (1.07, 1.63) 1.14 (0.90, 1.43) (0.080)
 ≥ 365 DDDs 113 44 248 1.34 (0.99, 1.82) 1.32 (0.96, 1.83)   89 36 189 1.49 (1.05, 2.10) 1.34 (0.93, 1.96)  
  1. aRestricted to patients with any diagnosis of hypertension, edema, myocardial infarction or heart failure at any time prior to esophageal or gastric cancer diagnosis.
  2. bAdjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, year of diagnosis, deprivation, radiotherapy within 6 months, chemotherapy within 6 months, surgery within 6 months, comorbidities (prior to cancer diagnosis, including cerebrovascular disease, chronic pulmonary disease, congestive heart disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction, peptic ulcer disease, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, rheumatological disease, liver disease), and other medication use (statins, aspirin, time-varying after diagnosis)
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