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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of EGC patients in the training set and the validation set

From: Risk factors of lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular invasion for early gastric cancer: a practical and effective predictive model based on international multicenter data

Parameter Training set Validation set P-value
(n = 1460) (n = 172)
n (%) n (%)
Age (mean ± SD) 57.43 ± 11.5 66.6 ± 10.6 <  0.001
Age    <  0.001
 ≤ 60 815 (55.8) 49 (28.5)  
 > 60 645 (44.2) 123 (71.5)  
Sex    <  0.001
 Male 1024 (70.1) 94 (54.7)  
 Female 436 (29.9) 78 (45.3)  
Tumor location    0.004
 Upper 242 (16.6) 28 (16.3)  
 Middle 475 (32.5) 58 (33.7)  
 Lower 643 (44.0) 86 (50.0)  
 Overlapa 100 (6.8) 0 (0)  
Tumor size (mm, mean ± SD) 24.7 ± 15.4 27.8 ± 16.2 0.016
Tumor size    <  0.001
 ≤ 20 mm 850 (58.2) 67 (39.0)  
 > 20 mm 610 (41.8) 105 (61.0)  
Depth of invasion    <  0.001
 Mucosa 641 (43.9) 100 (58.1)  
 Submucosa 819 (56.1) 72 (41.9)  
Tumor histological types    <  0.001
 Differentiated 502 (34.4) 122 (70.9)  
 Undifferentiated 958 (65.6) 50 (29.1)  
No. of ELNs (mean ± SD) 28.70 ± 11.5 25.70 ± 11.5 0.001
N stage    0.015
 N0 1189 (81.4) 153 (89.0)  
 N+ 271 (18.6) 19 (11.0)  
Extent of lymphadenectomy    <  0.001
 D1 155 (10.6) 28 (16.3)  
 D1+ 209 (14.3) 39 (22.7)  
 D2 1096 (75.1) 105 (61.0)  
LNM/LVI    0.032
 Absent 1145 (78.4) 147 (85.5)  
 Present 315 (21.6) 25 (14.5)  
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, LNM lymph node metastasis, No. of ELNs number of examined lymph nodes, LVI lymphovascular invasion
  2. aOverlap, tumor invaded two or more regions simultaneously