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Table 4 Potential effect modifiers of multivariable adjusteda HR and 95% CI for risk of breast cancer-specific mortality associated with wine consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis

From: Pre-diagnosis alcohol consumption and mortality risk among black women and white women with invasive breast cancer

  Wine consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis, average drinks/week
Non-drinkers < 1 1–< 3 ≥3 P trend P heterogeneity
Household income, times the federal poverty guideline
  < 3 No. Death 148 67 27 6   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.94 (0.69–1.28) 0.70 (0.46–1.07) 0.32 (0.14–0.74) 0.003 0.005
  ≥ 3 No. Death 226 117 50 29   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.96 (0.74–1.23) 0.82 (0.59–1.14) 1.09 (0.72–1.63) 0.98  
Race
 Black No. Death 215 75 26 9   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.06 (0.79–1.41) 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 0.65 (0.33–1.30) 0.05 0.23
 White No. Death 167 116 54 26   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.92 (0.71–1.19) 0.88 (0.64–1.22) 0.82 (0.53–1.26) 0.33  
Education
  ≤ High school No. Death 185 59 27 13   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.82 (0.60–1.12) 0.88 (0.58–1.35) 1.09 (0.61–1.96) 0.93 0.11
  > High school No. Death 197 132 53 22   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.03 (0.80–1.31) 0.73 (0.52–1.00) 0.64 (0.40–1.00) 0.02  
Menopausal status at diagnosis
 Pre-MP No. Death 177 109 49 19   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.95 (0.73–1.24) 0.95 (0.68–1.34) 0.73 (0.44–1.19) 0.24 0.42
 Post-MP No. Death 166 61 21 11   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.93 (0.68–1.28) 0.68 (0.43–1.09) 0.63 (0.34–1.19) 0.07  
BMI 5-years before diagnosis (kg/m2)
  < 25 No. Death 154 113 53 23   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 0.79 (0.57–1.10) 0.78 (0.49–1.22) 0.15 0.80
  ≥ 25 No. Death 228 78 27 12   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.96 (0.72–1.27) 0.75 (0.49–1.14) 0.73 (0.40–1.33) 0.17  
Comorbid conditionb
 No No. Death 206 125 53 27   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 0.80 (0.58–1.11) 0.74 (0.48–1.12) 0.10 0.96
 Yes No. Death 176 66 27 8   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.04 (0.77–1.41) 0.74 (0.49–1.13) 0.84 (0.41–1.75) 0.30  
Cigarette smoking
 Never No. Death 227 84 30 10   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.06 (0.79–1.41) 1.00 (0.66–1.51) 0.69 (0.36–1.33) 0.34 0.77
 Ever No. Death 155 107 50 25   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.91 (0.70–1.17) 0.68 (0.49–0.94) 0.79 (0.51–1.22) 0.08  
Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis
 Localized No. Death 100 55 27 11   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.10 (0.78–1.54) 1.06 (0.69–1.65) 0.80 (0.42–1.51) 0.60 0.43
 Non-localized No. Death 282 136 53 24   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.69 (0.50–0.94) 0.76 (0.49–1.17) 0.05  
Estrogen receptor status
 Positive No. Death 161 82 40 20   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 0.80 (0.55–1.16) 0.87 (0.53–1.41) 0.35 0.80
 Negative No. Death 160 93 35 13   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.11 (0.84–1.49) 0.87 (0.59–1.29) 0.76 (0.43–1.37) 0.25  
Histogologic type
 Ductal No. Death 286 150 62 24   
HR (95% CI) Referent 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.66 (0.43–1.03) 0.02 0.33
 Lobular No. Death 37 25 6 8   
HR (95% CI) Referent 1.17 (0.72–1.93) 0.50 (0.21–1.19) 1.21 (0.56–2.61) 0.91  
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, MP menopausal
  2. aAll models are stratified by age at diagnosis, and include study site, race, education, household income, number of mammograms within the 5 years before breast cancer diagnosis, body mass index 5-years before diagnosis, number of comorbidities before breast cancer diagnosis, smoking history, stage, estrogen receptor status, histologic type of breast cancer tumor, beer consumption, and liquor consumption
  3. bComorbidities included hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancers other than non-melanoma skin cancers
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