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Fig. 4 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 4

From: HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis: the role of signalling pathways and innovative ex vivo research models

Fig. 4

In vitro models for studying HBV infection. Primary human hepatocytes derived from liver tissue provide the best material for HBV studies; however, human liver tissue is not readily available and is expensive to source and process. However, the discovery of human NTCP as one of the membrane receptors for HBV binding has allowed for the development of immortalized cell lines susceptible to HBV infection. iPS technology has helped to create better models that resemble functional mature hepatocytes and yield better HBV infection. But these two in vitro models still have several limitations, especially in regard to the genetic and epigenetic profiles of cells arising from different individual sources. Recently, a newly developed technique allows for the production of liver organoids directly from hepatic stem cells in liver tissue, creating a superior model for future HBV studies

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