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Fig. 1 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Valproic acid-induced amphiregulin secretion confers resistance to temozolomide treatment in human glioma cells

Fig. 1

VPA regulated the cytotoxic effects of TMZ in U87MG cells. Cells were treated with VPA (500 μM) or TMZ (500 μM), alone or in combination, for 48 h. a Cell cytotoxicity was measured by an XTT-based assay. Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M. of at least 3 independent experiments. *P < 0.05, compared with the control (0 μM). #P < 0.05, compared with cells treated with TMZ (500 μM) alone. b Cell cycle was analyzed by PI staining and flow cytometry. Sub-G1, G0/G1, S and G2/M indicate different cell cycle phases (Upper panel). Bar graphs present the percentage of the number of cells in each phase. Data are presented as mean ± S.E.M. from 3 independent experiments (Lower panel). c-e The effects of VPA on TMZ-induced apoptosis and autophagy were assessed by Western blot using cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and LC3B antibodies

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