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Table 2 Top rank predictive clinicopathological variables in the ANN models for each of the axillary nodal status outcome

From: Artificial neural network models to predict nodal status in clinically node-negative breast cancer

Predictors Ranka ORb
N0 vs. N+ (n = 800)
 Tumor size, per mm 100.00 0.950 (0.917–0.984)
 Vascular invasion, present vs. absent 40.94 0.409 (0.201–0.681)
 Multifocality, present vs. absent 14.61 0.670 (0.452–0.910)
 ER status, positive vs. negative 10.49 0.618 (0.312–1.110)
 Histological type 9.98  
  Ductal   1 [reference]
  Lobular   1.092 (0.692–1.688)
  Other   2.033 (1.112–3.751)
PR status, positive vs. negative 9.60 0.678 (0.443–0.962)
 Mode of detection, mammographic screening vs. symptomatic presentation 7.97 1.310 (0.987–1.705)
 Age, per year 6.76 1.010 (0.997–1.024)
 Tumor localization in the breastc 6.47  
  Upper outer quadrant   1 [reference]
  Central   1.137 (0.592–2.099)
  Upper inner quadrant   1.323 (0.922–1.889)
  Lower inner quadrant   1.112 (0.500–2.034)
  Lower outer quadrant   0.680 (0.383–1.039)
 Ki67, percentage 5.07 0.996 (0.981–1.009)
N1 vs. N0 (n = 746)
 Tumor size, per mm 100.0 1.050 (1.016–1.087)
 Vascular invasion, present vs. absent 46.15 2.492 (1.440–4.376)
 Multifocality, present vs. absent 16.47 1.527 (1.101–2.180)
 PR status, positive vs. negative 14.36 1.613 (1.058–2.409)
 Histological type 10.55  
  Ductal   1 [reference]
  Lobular   0.785 (0.466–1.131)
  Other   0.491 (0.242–0.872)
 ER status, positive vs. negative 9.04 1.657 (0.813–2.895)
 Age, per year 6.95 0.992 (0.978–1.003)
 Tumor localization in the breastc 6.03  
  Upper outer quadrant   1 [reference]
  Central   0.805 (0.324–1.415)
  Upper inner quadrant   0.741 (0.510–1.080)
  Lower inner quadrant   0.974 (0.476–1.759)
  Lower outer quadrant   1.462 (0.915–2.369)
 Ki67, percentage 5.07 1.002 (0.992–1.014)
 Menopausal status, postmenopause vs. premenopause 4.88 0.783 (0.504–1.065)
N2 vs. N0 and N1 (n = 800)
 Tumor size, per mm 100.0 1.039 (1.020–1.054)
 Vascular invasion, present vs. absent 36.71 1.805 (1.345–2.451)
 ER status, positive vs. negative 13.25 1.777 (1.357–2.873)
 Histological type 4.55  
  Ductal   1 [reference]
  Lobular   1.658 (1.252–2.083)
  Other   0.910 (0.401–1.194)
 Tumor localization in the breastc 3.48  
  Upper outer quadrant   1 [reference]
  Central   1.208 (0.739–2.033)
  Upper inner quadrant   1.012 (0.778–1.270)
  Lower inner quadrant   1.077 (0.684–1.410)
  Lower outer quadrant   1.544 (1.134–2.021)
 Multifocality, present vs. absent 2.32 1.219 (1.033–1.338)
  1. Abbreviations: N0 Lymph node negative, N+ Any lymph node metastasis, N1 Lymph node metastasis involving 1–3 nodes, N2 Lymph node metastasis involving at least 4 nodes, ER Estrogen receptor, PR Progesterone receptor
  2. aSensitivity analysis, linearly scaled into percentage
  3. bMean odds ratio, values enclosed by parentheses represent 90% central range defined by the 5th and 95th percentiles
  4. cTumor localization in the breast was classified in quadrants or defined as centrally located; overlapping lesions were equally allocated into adjacent quadrants