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Table 4 Cluster analysis of molecular pathways and proteins in different cancers

From: Anticancer effect of berberine based on experimental animal models of various cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Functional clustering Molecular Pathway Proteins
Proliferation(apoptosis) Breast cancer: ↑ caspase-9/cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis [11]; TRAIL(TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-mediated apoptosis [12]
Liver cancer: ↑ Fas-mediated apoptosis [17]; ↓ arachidonic acid metabolic pathway [18]
Lung cancer: ↑ P53-Induced growth inhibition and apoptosis [26]
Gastric cancer: ↑ apoptosis via inhibiting EGFR signaling [27]
Esophageal cancer: ↑ cell growth inhibition and apoptosis [32]
caspase-3 [11, 12, 17, 26, 32]; P53 [12, 17, 25, 26, 32]; Bax [11, 26, 32]; caspase-9 [11, 17]; PARP [12, 32]; ClvC-3, Ligase4 [11]; Fas [17]; caspase-8 [17]; Bak [26]; P21, P27 [32]
Bcl-2 [11, 26, 32]; Mcl-1 [12, 32]; Bcl-xl [26, 28]; pERK [27, 28]; pSTAT3 [28, 32]; P65 [12]; PGE2, cPLA2, COX-2 [18]; pAKT, pNFκB, NFκB [28]; PI3K, Rac, p-JAK2, Wnt3a, β-catenin, XIAP, Ki-67 [32]
No effect: caspase-3, caspase-9 [18]
Proliferation(autophagy) Neuroepithelial cancer: ↑ ERK1/2-mediated impairment of mitochondrial aerobic respiration and autophagy [30] ↑ C-parp-1, LC3II [30]
↓ Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 [30]
Proliferation(cell cycle arrest) Colon cancer: ↓ cell proliferation by inducing the G2/M phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of the related cyclins [22]
Lung cancer: ↑ G1 cell cycle arrest [25]
Gastric cancer: ↑ cell cycle arrest via inhibiting EGFR signaling [27]
Esophageal cancer: ↑ cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase [32]
Cholangiocarcinoma: ↑ G1 cell cycle arrest [34]
↓ cyclin B1 [22, 25, 32]; cyclin D1 [27, 32, 34]; cyclin E [32, 34]; Cdc2 [22]; cdc25c [22]; CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 [32]
Proliferation(others) Breast cancer: ↓ cell proliferation [14]
Liver cancer: ↓ Id-1-induced cell proliferation [19]
Colon cancer: ↓ β-catenin - induced proliferation by binding RXR [21]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: ↓ cell proliferation via an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1(EBNA1)-dependent mechanism [23]; ↓ cell proliferation by inhibiting STAT3 activation [24]
Lung cancer: ↓cell proliferation via MAPK pathways [25]
Gastric cancer: ↓ cell proliferation via MAPK pathways [28]
Neuroepithelial cancer: ↓cancer growth by suppressing Hedgehog signaling pathway [29]
Endometrial carcinoma: ↓ cell growth via miR-101/COX-2 [31]
Cholangiocarcinoma: ↓ cell proliferation [34]
↑ c-Cbl, p21WAF1/CIP1 [21]; Cleaved PARP [24]
↓ PCNA [14, 21, 34]; Mcl-1, p-STAT3 [23, 24]; p-MAPK [25, 28]; Id-1 [19]; β-catenin, Ki-67, c-myc, RXRα [21]; EBNA1 [23]; p-Akt, p-CREB [25]; p-JNK, IL-8 [28]; Gli1, PTCH1 [29]; COX-2, PGE2 [31]
Intracellular oxidative stress Breast cancer: ↑ intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels [14] ↑ MDA [14]
↓ SOD, CAT, GSH, Vit-C [14]
Inflammation Breast cancer: ↓ inflammation [14] ↓ IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-kB [14]
Angiogenesis Liver cancer: ↓ Id-1-induced angiogenesis [19] ↓ Id-1, VEGF, HIF-1α [19]
Migration Breast cancer: ↓ TGF-β1-induced cell migration [13]; vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP)-induced cell migration [16]
Liver cancer: ↓ Id-1-induced migration [19]
Endometrial carcinoma: ↓ cell metastasis via miR-101/COX-2 [31]
↓TGF-β1, MMP-2, MMP-9 [13]; Id-1 [19]; COX-2, PGE2 [31]
No effect: VASP [16]