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Table 3 Molecular pathways and proteins in different cancers

From: Anticancer effect of berberine based on experimental animal models of various cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Molecular Pathway Proteins Functional clustering
Breast cancer
 ↑ caspase-9/cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis [11]; TRAIL(TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-mediated apoptosis [12]
↓ cell proliferation [14]
↑ caspase-3 [11, 12]; caspase-9, ClvC-3, Bax, Ligase4 [11]; PARP, P53 [12]
↓ Bcl-2 [11]; P65, Mcl-1 [12]; PCNA [14]
Proliferation(including apoptosis)
 ↑ intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels [14] ↑ MDA [14]
↓ SOD, CAT, GSH, Vit-C [14]
Intracellular oxidative stress
↓ inflammation [14] ↓ IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-kB [14] Inflammation
 ↓ TGF-β1-induced cell migration [13]; vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP)-induced cell migration [16] ↓TGF-β1, MMP-2, MMP-9 [13]
No effect: VASP [16]
Migration
Liver cancer
 ↑ Fas-mediated apoptosis [17]
↓ arachidonic acid metabolic pathway [18]; Id-1-induced cell proliferation [19]
↑Fas, P53, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 [17]
↓ PGE2, cPLA2, COX-2 [18]; Id-1 [19]
No effect: caspase-3, caspase-9 [18]
Proliferation(including apoptosis)
 ↓ Id-1-induced angiogenesis [19] ↓ Id-1, VEGF, HIF-1α [19] Angiogenesis
↓ Id-1-induced migration [19] ↓Id-1 [19] Migration
Colon cancer
 ↓ β-catenin - induced proliferation by binding RXR [21]; cell proliferation by inducing the G2/M phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of the related cyclins [22] ↑ c-Cbl, p21WAF1/CIP1 [21]
↓ Cdc2 [21, 22]; PCNA, β-catenin, Ki-67, c-myc, RXRα [21]; cyclin B1, cdc25c [22]
Proliferation(including cell cycle arrest)
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
 ↓cell proliferation via an Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1(EBNA1)-dependent mechanism [23]; cell proliferation by inhibiting STAT3 activation [24] ↑ Cleaved PARP [24]
↓ Mcl-1, p-STAT3 [23, 24]; EBNA1 [23]
Proliferation
Lung cancer
 ↑ G1 cell cycle arrest [25]; P53-Induced growth inhibition and apoptosis [26]
↓cell proliferation via MAPK pathways [25]
↑ P53 [25, 26]; Bax, Bak, caspase-3 [26]
↓ p-Akt, p-CREB, p-MAPK, cyclin B1 [25]; Bcl-2, Bcl-xl [26]
Proliferation(including apoptosis and cell cycle arrest)
Gastric cancer
 ↑ apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via inhibiting EGFR signaling [27]
↓ cell proliferation via MAPK pathways [28]
↓pERK [27, 28]; pAKT, pSTAT3, pNFκB, NFκB, Bcl-xL, cyclin D1 [27]; p-P38 MAPK, p-JNK, IL-8 [28] Proliferation(including apoptosis and cell cycle arrest)
Neuroepithelial cancer
 ↑ ERK1/2-mediated impairment of mitochondrial aerobic respiration and autophagy [30]
↓cancer growth by suppressing Hedgehog signaling pathway [29]
↑ C-parp-1, LC3II [30]
↓ Gli1, PTCH1 [29]; Ki-67, p-ERK1/2 [30]
Proliferation(including autophagy)
Endometrial carcinoma
 ↓ cell growth via miR-101/COX-2 [31] ↓ COX-2, PGE2 [31] Proliferation
 ↓ cell metastasis via miR-101/COX-2 [31] ↓ COX-2, PGE2 [31] Migration
Esophageal cancer
 ↑ cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase [32] ↑ P21, P27, P53, cleaved-PARP, caspase-3, Bax [32]
↓ PI3K, Rac, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, Wnt3a, β-catenin, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, XIAP, Ki-67, cyclin B, cyclin D, cyclin E, CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 [32]
Proliferation(including apoptosis and cell cycle arrest)
Cholangiocarcinoma
 ↑ G1 cell cycle arrest [34]
↓ cell proliferation [34]
↓ PCNA, cyclin D1, cyclin E [34] Proliferation(including cell cycle arrest)