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Table 4 Subgroup analysis for sex difference of gastric cancer (former smoker versus never smoker)

From: Smoking status and subsequent gastric cancer risk in men compared with women: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

Group RRR and 95% CI P value Heterogeneity (%) P value for heterogeneity P value for interaction test
Publication year
 2000 or after 1.17 (0.85–1.59) 0.332 60.0 0.029 0.731
 Before 2000 1.28 (0.65–2.51) 0.471 0.0 0.534
Country
 Asia 1.35 (1.05–1.74) 0.019 0.0 0.606 0.528
 Europe or US 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 0.648 59.7 0.029
Follow-up duration (years)
 10 or greater 1.17 (0.89–1.55) 0.252 0.0 0.638 0.417
  < 10 1.35 (1.02–1.80) 0.038 27.3 0.240
Outcomes
 GC incidence 1.03 (0.51–2.07) 0.936 73.9 0.009 0.436
 GC mortality 1.25 (1.03–1.51) 0.022 0.0 0.726
Adjusted BMI or not
 Yes 0.86 (0.38–1.93) 0.714 74.2 0.009 0.171
 No 1.26 (1.04–1.53) 0.019 0.0 0.630
Adjusted alcohol consumption
 Yes 0.92 (0.45–1.89) 0.828 73.9 0.009 0.213
 No 1.26 (1.04–1.53) 0.020 0.0 0.592
NOS score
 7 or 8 1.32 (1.09–1.59) 0.004 12.1 0.337 0.001
  < 7 0.34 (0.12–0.93) 0.036 0.0 0.680