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Table 1 Baseline characteristic of studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Smoking status and subsequent gastric cancer risk in men compared with women: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

Study Country Sex Sample size Age (years) Never smoker Former smoker Current smoker Follow-up (years) Reported outcomes Adjusted factors NOS score
JACC 2005 [24] Japan Men 43,482 57.4 9014 11,471 22,997 9.9 GC mortality Age, smoking, alcohol intake, educational level, preference for salty foods and green-tea intake. 7
Women 43,482 57.4 9014 11,471 22,997
Kato 1992 [25] Japan Men NA > 30.0 NA NA NA 6.0 GC mortality Age 6
Women NA > 30.0 NA NA NA
Tverdal 1993 [26] Norway Men 44,290 35.0–49.0 9334 10,467 18,400 13.3 GC mortality Age, cholesterol, SBP, PI during leisure, BMI, height and number of cigarettes. 7
Women 24,535 35.0–49.0 12,369 3079 8954
Engeland 1996 [27] Norway Men 8905 23.0–57.0 NA NA NA 28.0 GC NA 7
Women 10,169 18.0–57.0 NA NA NA
Lindblad 2005 [28] UK Men 6860 40.0–84.0 2956 678 1212 NA GC Age, calendar year, BMI, alcohol consumption and reflux 6
Women 3335 40.0–84.0 1744 168 395
Jee 2004 [29] Korea Men 830,139 45.0 166,858 190,932 473,179 8.0 GC mortality Age 8
Women 382,767 48.6 352,528 9569 20,669
Chao 2002 [30] US Men 467,788 57.0 117,968 179,833 151,406 14.0 GC mortality Age, race, education, family history of stomach cancer, consumption of high-fiber grain foods, vegetables, citrus fruits or juices, and use of vitamin C, multivitamins, and aspirin 8
Women 588,053 56.0 326,835 122,455 122,465
Akiba 1990 [31] Japan Men 122,261 > 40.0 NA NA NA 16.0 GC mortality Prefecture of residence, occupation, attained age, and observation period 6
Women 142,857 > 40.0 NA NA NA
Gonzalez 2003 [32] Europe (10 countries) Men 148,182 51.6 49,678 36,791 36,643 5.0 GC Age, sex, vegetables, fruits, processed meat, alcohol, BMI and educational level 7
Women 322,046 51.6 191,037 41,887 58,319
Nomura 2012 [33] US Men 82,683 60.1 25,466 42,251 14,966 7.3 GC Age at cohort entry as a continuous variable, ethnicity as a strata variable, education, processed meat intake, BMI, alcohol intake, aspirin use, and family history of gastric cancer 8
Women 99,758 59.6 56,463 28,930 14,365
  1. GC gastric cancer, SBP systolic blood pressure, PI physical activity, BMI body mass index