Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of patient characteristics

From: Brain metastases in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms: risk factors and outcome

Characteristics Number of all patients (%) All NET patients
(%)
All NEC patients
(%)
Long-term survivors (%) Metachrone BM (%)
Total 51 17 (33) 31 (61) 6 (11.7) 20 (39)
Mean age at first diagnosis
(years)(range)
56 (27–86) 55 (27–78) 55 (27–86) 54 (35–66) 51 (30–69)
Mean age at diagnosis of brain metastases
(years)(range)
58 (27–86) 56 (27–58) 56 (27–86) 58 (45–74) 55 (32–73)
Primary tumor localization
 lung 23 (45.1) 6 (35.3) 17 (54.8) 4 (67) 4 (20)
 CUP 11 (21.6) 4 (23.5) 5 (9.8)   3 (15)
 pancreas 9 (17.6) 4 (23.5) 4 (12.9) 1 (16.5) 9 (45)
 gastrointestinal tract 6 (11.8) 2 (11.8) 4 (12.9)   2 (10)
 cervix/ovary 2 (3.9) 1 (5.9) 1 (3.2) 1 (16.5) 2 (10)
Gender
 male 25 (49.0) 5 (29.4) 18 (58.1) 0 6 (30)
 female 26 (51.0) 12 (70.6) 13 (41.9) 6 (100) 14 (70)
Histology WHO 2010
 well/moderate      
 differentiated 17 (33.3) 17 (100) 0 5 (83.5) 7 (35)
 poorly differentiated 31 (60.8)   31 (100) 1 (16.5) 11 (55)
 unknown 3 (5.9)     2 (10)
Ki-67 index
 G1 (≤2%) 3 (5.9) 3 (17.6) 0 0 3 (15)
 G2 (3–20%) 14 (27.5) 14 (82.4) 0 4 (67) 4 (20)
 G3 (> 20%) 31 (60.8)   31 (100) 1 (16.5) 11 (55)
  < 55% 16 (31.4)   13 (41.9) 1 (16.5) 6 (30)
  > 55% 26 (51.0)   16 (51.6) 0 5 (25)
 unknown 9 (17.6)   2 (6.5) 1 (16.5) 3 (15)
Functionality
 non-functioning 48 (94.1) 15 (89.2) 30 (96.8) 4 (67) 18 (90)
 gastrinoma 2 (3.9) 1 (5.9) 1 (3.2) 1 (16.5) 2 (10)
 ectopic ACTH syndrome 1 (1.9) 1 (5.9)   1 (16.5)  
Sites of other metastases
 Liver 31 (60.8) 13 (76.5) 17 (54.8) 3 (50) 12 (60)
 lymph nodes 28 (54.9) 8 (47.1) 20 (64.5) 4 (67) 12 (60)
 bone 23 (45.1) 10 (29.4) 12 (38.7) 1 (16.5) 9 (45)
 lung 14 (27.5) 5 (14.7) 9 (29.0) 2 (33) 4 (20)
 adrenal 5 (9.8)   5 (16.1) 0 1 (5)
 none 2 (3.9)   2 (6.5) 0 0
 other 18 (35.3) 6 (35.3) 12 (38.7) 4 (67) 6 (30)
Number of brain metastases
 1–2 22 (43.1) 9 (52.9) 13 (41.9) 1 (16.5) 9 (45)
  ≥ 3 21 (41.2) 5 (29.4) 14 (45.2) 5 (83.5) 8 (40)
 unknown 8 (15.7) 3 (17.7) 2 (6.5)   3 (15)
Therapy of brain metastases
 radiation 31 (60.8) 8 (47.1) 21 (60.8) 4 (67) 10 (50)
 none 19 (37.3) 9 (52.9) 9 (29.0) 2 (33) 7 (35)
 resection 7 (13.7) 1 (5.9) 6 (19.4) 1 (16.5) 4 (20)
 temozolomide-based CTx 7 (13.7) 4 (23.5) 2 (6.5) 2 (33) 4 (20)
  1. Abbreviations: NET neuroendocrine tumors; NEC neuroendocrine carcinomas; BM brain metastases; CUP carcinoma of unknown primary; CTx chemotherapy