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Table 1 Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma

From: Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholangiocarcinoma

Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma
 Cholestatic liver diseases Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
Fibropolycystic liver diseases
Congenital hepatic fibrosis
Caroli disease
Choledochal cysts
Biliary hamartomas
    Liver cirrhosis (any aetiology)
 Biliary stone disease Cholecystolithiasis
Hepatolithiasis
Choledocholithiasis
 Infections Liver flukes
Hepatitis B and C
Chronic typhoid disease
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
 Inflammatory disorders Inflammatory bowel disease
Chronic pancreatitis
Gout
Thyrotoxicosis
 Toxins Alcohol
Tobacco
Thorotrast (contrast agent)
Chemical toxins, e.g. dioxins, vinyl chloride, nitrosamines
 Metabolic conditions Diabetes
Obesity
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
 Genetic disorders Lynch syndrome (Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer)
Bile salt transporter protein gene defects
 Other Intraductal Papillary Neoplasms of the Bile duct (IPNB)