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Table 2 Main features of all included studies used in the prognostic meta-analysis

From: Appraising growth differentiation factor 15 as a promising biomarker in digestive system tumors: a meta-analysis

Author & reference Year Country Cancer type Patient size Sample type Method Expression level HR Survival point P value Follow-up time extraction Quartiles of GDF-15 NOS score
Li et al. [8] 2016 China CRC 138 Serum ELISA Increased 1.915 OS 0.045 Unclear Directly / 6
Wang et al. [13] 2017 China CRC 94 Serum ELISA Increased 2.917 TSS 0.0005 Average: 43 months Directly / 8
2.607 TSS 0.007
Wallin et al. [9] 2011 Sweden CRC 320 Plasma SP-PLA Increased 2.11 OS 0.002 Median: 6 years Directly / 8
Brown et al. [10] 2003 Australia CRC 261 Serum ELISA Increased 2.2 OS 0.0034 60 months Directly / 8
Mehta et al. [11] 2015 America CRC 618 Plasma ELISA Increased 1.88 OS < 0.0001 Median: 9.2 years Directly Quartile2 8
Increased 1.77 OS 0.0002
Increased 1.74 OS 0.0002
Increased 1.94 CSS 0.003
Increased 1.65 CSS 0.01
Increased 1.67 CSS 0.009
Increased 2.51 OS < 0.0001 Quartile3
Increased 2.55 OS 0.0002
Increased 2.54 OS 0.0002
Increased 2.64 CSS 0.003
Increased 2.6 CSS 0.01
Increased 2.67 CSS 0.009
Increased 2.85 OS < 0.0001 Quartile4
Increased 2.63 OS 0.0002
Increased 2.63 OS 0.0002
Increased 2.73 CSS 0.003
Increased 2.34 CSS 0.01
Increased 2.4 CSS 0.009
Fisher et al. [22] 2015 Australia EC 138 Plasma ELISA Increased 2.91 OS 0.076 60 months Directly / 9
3.87 OS 0.048
Wang et al. [21] 2014 China ESCC 286 Serum ELISA Increased 2.557 TSS 0.002 Average: 30 months Directly / 8
2.625 TSS 0.005
1.739 RFS 0.047
1.789 RFS 0.050
Skipworth et al. [14] 2010 Australia OGC 293 Plasma ELISA Increased 1.549 OS 0.036 Over 1500 days Directly / 8
Blanco-Calvo et al. [15] 2014 Spain GC 52 Serum ELISA Increased 3.843 OS 0.001 Median:118.9 weeks Directly / 8
3.608 PFS < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: OGC oesophago-gastric cancer, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, GC Gastrointestinal cancer, EC esophageal carcinoma, OS overall survival, DFS disease-free survival, PFS progression-free survival, TSS tumor-specific survival, CSS cancer-specific survival, ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist, HR hazard ratio