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Table 3 Multiple regression analysis of the association between nutrition labeling awareness and outcome variables in cancer survivors and general population

From: Association between awareness of nutrition labeling and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in cancer survivors and the general population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2016

Variables Cancer Survivor General Population
RR 95% CI P-value RR 95% CI P-value
Awareness on nutrition labelling         
 Checks nutrition facts and makes labeling-dependent purchase decisions 1.0117 1.0001 1.0233 0.0479 1.0009 0.9992 1.0027 0.3042
 Checks nutrition facts but does not make labeling-dependent purchase decisions/ Aware of nutrition facts but does not check them when making food purchase decisions 1.0121 1.0036 1.0205 0.0050 1.0015 1.0001 1.0028 0.0349
Unaware of nutrition facts 1.0000 1.0000
Sex         
 Male 1.0034 0.9951 1.0118 0.4217 0.9964 0.9950 0.9978 <.0001
 Female 1.0000 1.0000
Age (years)         
 30–39 1.0142 0.9965 1.0321 0.1164 1.0032 1.0013 1.0051 0.0010
 40–49 1.0006 0.9894 1.0119 0.9190 1.0036 1.0018 1.0054 <.0001
 50–59 1.0010 0.9915 1.0106 0.8353 1.0026 1.0009 1.0042 0.0031
 60+ 1.0000 1.0000
Educational level         
 Under high school graduation 1.0014 0.9841 1.0191 0.8719 1.0005 0.9980 1.0029 0.7201
 Bachelor’s degree 1.0041 0.9866 1.0220 0.6466 1.0014 0.9990 1.0038 0.2565
 Master’s degree or above 1.0000 1.0000
Household income         
 Low 1.0102 0.9994 1.0209 0.0632 0.9991 0.9972 1.0009 0.3281
 Mid-low 1.0110 1.0007 1.0212 0.0357 1.0010 0.9996 1.0025 0.1497
 Mid-high 1.0032 0.9932 1.0132 0.5350 1.0012 0.9999 1.0025 0.0799
 High 1.0000 1.0000
BMI         
  < 23 1.0000 0.9918 1.0082 0.9994 1.0019 1.0007 1.0032 0.0028
 23–25 0.9907 0.9813 1.0002 0.0561 1.0022 1.0008 1.0036 0.0016
  > 25 1.0000 1.0000
Aerobic exercise habits         
 Yes 1.0000 1.0000
 No 0.9955 0.9878 1.0032 0.2527 1.0002 0.9991 1.0014 0.6806
Smoking status         
 Non-smoker 1.0000 1.0000
 Smoker 1.0005 0.9889 1.0122 0.9365 0.9956 0.9942 0.9970 <.0001
High-risk drinking         
 No 1.0000 1.0000
 Yes 1.0129 0.9965 1.0295 0.1229 1.0046 1.0029 1.0064 <.0001
Family history for hyperlipidemia         
 No 1.0000 1.0000
 Yes 1.0042 0.9858 1.0230 0.6550 0.9977 0.9954 1.0001 0.0560
Survey year 0.9979 0.9962 0.9996 0.0162 0.9994 0.9991 0.9996 <.0001
Stress awareness         
 Low 1.0000 1.0000
 High 1.0076 0.9995 1.0159 0.0675 0.9997 0.9985 1.0009 0.6400
Subjective health status         
 Good 0.9987 0.9890 1.0085 0.7942 1.0001 0.9985 1.0018 0.8834
 Normal 1.0010 0.9930 1.0089 0.8100 0.9997 0.9982 1.0012 0.7123
 Bad 1.0000 1.0000
The frequency of eating out         
 More than five times a week 1.0000 1.0000
 Less than four times a week 1.0020 0.9927 1.0115 0.6676 1.0017 1.0005 1.0028 0.0069
Average amount of total energy intake (per 100 Kcal) 1.0001 0.9984 1.0017 0.9452 1.0005 1.0003 1.0006 <.0001
Average amount of daily carbohydrate intake (per 10 g) 0.9998 0.9990 1.0006 0.5958 0.9998 0.9997 0.9999 <.0001
Average amount of daily fat intake (per 10 g) 0.9991 0.9964 1.0018 0.4915 0.9995 0.9992 0.9998 0.0009
Total cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL) 1.2092 1.2057 1.2128 <.0001 1.2096 1.2090 1.2102 <.0001
Triglyceride (per 10 mg/dL) 0.9618 0.9613 0.9624 <.0001 0.9620 0.9619 0.9621 <.0001
LDL cholesterol(mg/dL) 0.9815 0.9812 0.9818 <.0001 0.9813 0.9812 0.9814 <.0001
  1. BMI body mass index, LDL low-density lipoprotein