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Table 7 Multivariate regression analysis with TRG as dependent variable

From: CEA clearance pattern as a predictor of tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer: a post-hoc analysis of FOWARC trial

Variable TRG 0–1 TRG 2–3 P Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Training cohort
 Tumor length    0.037 3.19 (1.07–9.46)
  4 cm 19 (42%) 11 (71%)   
   > 4 cm 14 (58%) 27 (29%)   
 Circumferential extent    0.146 2.65 (0.71–9.86)
  50% 12 (36%) 5 (13%)   
   > 50% 21 (64%) 33 (87%)   
 Normalization of post- treatment CEA Level    0.082 2.81 (0.88–9.01)
  Normal (< 5 ng/mL) 26 (79%) 21 (55%)   
 Elevated (5 ng/mL) 7 (21%) 17 (45%)   
 CEA clearance pattern    0.161 2.18 (0.73–6.44)
  Exponential decrease (R20.9) 19 (58%) 12 (32%)   
  Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 14 (42%) 26 (68%)   
Validation cohort
 Tumor length    0.009 4.23 (1.43–12.50)
  4 cm 19 (58%) 12 (29%)   
   > 4 cm 14 (42%) 30 (64%)   
 Circumferential extent    0.147 0.42 (0.13–1.35)
  50% 9 (27%) 18 (43%)   
   > 50% 24 (73%) 24 (57%)   
 Normalization of post- treatment CEA Level    0.884 0.92 (0.29–2.92)
  Normal (< 5 ng/mL) 23 (70%) 23 (55%)   
  Elevated (5 ng/mL) 10 (30%) 19 (45%)   
 CEA clearance pattern    0.009 4.37 (1.44–13.23)
  Exponential decrease (R20.9) 21 (64%) 15 (36%)   
  Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 12 (36%) 27 (64%)   
  1. Abbreviation: TRG tumor regression grade
  2. The p value in boldface means statistically significant, that is, less than 0.05