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Table 5 Multivariate regression analysis with tumor downstaging as dependent variable

From: CEA clearance pattern as a predictor of tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer: a post-hoc analysis of FOWARC trial

Variable Good downstaging Poor downstaging P Odds Ratio (95%CI)
Training cohort
 Pretreatment T stage    0.04 10.14 (1.11–92.55)
  T2–3 19 (95%) 33 (65%)   
  T4 1 (5%) 18 (35)   
 Tumor differentiation    0.032 4.21 (1.13–15.68)
  Well/Moderately 14 (70%) 20 (40%)   
  Poorly/Undifferentiated 6 (30%) 31 (60%)   
 CEA clearance pattern    0.002 8.25 (2.19–31.10)
  Exponential decrease (R20.9) 15 (75%) 16 (31%)   
  Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 5 (25%) 35 (69%)   
Validation cohort
 Pretreatment T stage    0.108 0.31 (0.08–1.29)
  T2–3 26 (78%) 42 (86%)   
  T4 0 7 (14%)   
 Tumor differentiation    0.752 1.22 (0.36–4.09)
  Well/Moderately 19 (73%) 37 (76%)   
  Poorly/Undifferentiated 7 (27%) 12 (24%)   
 CEA clearance pattern    0.008 4.28 (1.47–12.43)
  Exponential decrease (R20.9) 18 (69%) 18 (37%)   
  Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 8 (31%) 31 (63%)   
  1. The p value in boldface means statistically significant, that is, less than 0.05