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Table 2 Univariate analysis of predictors for TRG in the training and validation cohorts

From: CEA clearance pattern as a predictor of tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer: a post-hoc analysis of FOWARC trial

Variable Training cohort Validation cohort
TRG 0–1 TRG 2–3 P TRG 0–1 TRG 2–3 P
No. of patients 33 38   33 42  
Age (mean, y ± SD) 52 ± 12 56 ± 12 0.199 55 ± 13 55 ± 11 0.827
Gender    0.671    0.627
 Male 21 (64%) 26 (68%)   16 (49%) 18 (43%)  
 Female 12 (36%) 12 (32%)   17 (51%) 24 (57%)  
Pretreatment T stage    0.655    0.854
 T2 0 0   2 (6%) 4 (9%)  
 T3 25 (76%) 27 (71%)   28 (85%) 34 (82%)  
 T4 8 (24%) 11 (29%   3 (9%) 4 (9%)  
Pretreatment N stage    0.928    0.638
 N0 5 (16%) 7 (18%)   10 (30%) 11 (26%)  
 N1 14 (42%) 16 (42%)   16 (49%) 18 (43%)  
 N2 14 (42%) 15 (40%)   7 (21%) 13 (31%)  
Tumor differentiation    0.128    0.732
 Well/Moderately 19 (58%) 15 (40%)   24 (73%) 32 (76%)  
 Poorly/Undifferentiated 14 (42%) 23 (60%)   9 (27%) 10 (24%)  
Distance from the anal verge    0.120    0.924
5 cm 13 (39%) 22 (58%)   13 (39%) 17 (41%)  
  > 5 cm 20 (61%) 16 (42%)   20 (61%) 25 (59%)  
Tumor length    0.015    0.011
4 cm 19 (42%) 11 (71%)   19 (58%) 12 (29%)  
  > 4 cm 14 (58%) 27 (29%)   14 (42%) 30 (64%)  
Circumferential extent    0.022    0.163
50% 12 (36%) 5 (13%)   9 (27%) 18 (43%)  
  > 50% 21 (64%) 33 (87%)   24 (73%) 24 (57%)  
Pre-treatment CEA level (mean, ng/ml; 95%CI) 29 (16–43) 25 (17–34) 0.615 15 (11–18) 14 (11–16) 0.548
Post- treatment CEA level (mean, ng/mL; 95%CI) 4 (1–7) 6 (4–9) 0.233 5 (4–7) 7 (4–9) 0.343
Normalization of post- treatment CEA Level    0.037    0.187
 Normal (< 5 ng/mL) 26 (79%) 21 (55%)   23 (70%) 23 (55%)  
 Elevated (5 ng/mL) 7 (21%) 17 (45%)   10 (30%) 19 (45%)  
CEA clearance pattern    0.028    0.016
 Exponential decrease (R20.9) 19 (58%) 12 (32%)   21 (64%) 15 (36%)  
 Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 14 (42%) 26 (68%)   12 (36%) 27 (64%)  
Concurrent chemotherapy    0.135    NA
 Capecitabine 0 0   33 (44%) 42 (56%)  
 Infusional fluorouracil 15 (45%) 24 (63%)   0 0  
 mFOLFOX6 48 (55%) 14 (37%)   0 0  
  1. Abbreviation: NA not applicable, TRG tumor regression grade
  2. The p value in boldface means statistically significant, that is, less than 0.05