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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of the training (n = 71) and validation cohorts (n = 75)

From: CEA clearance pattern as a predictor of tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer: a post-hoc analysis of FOWARC trial

Clinicopathologic indexes Training cohort (n = 71) Validation cohort (n = 75) P
Age (mean, y ± SD) 54 ± 12 54 ± 12 0.801
Gender    0.011
 Male 47 (66%) 34 (45%)  
 Female 24 (34%) 41 (55%)  
Tumor differentiation    0.005
 Well/Moderately 34 (48%) 56 (75%)  
 Poorly/Undifferentiated 37 (52%) 19 (25%)  
Distance from anal verge    0.259
5 cm 35 (49%) 30 (40%)  
  > 5 cm 36 (51%) 45 (60%)  
Tumor length (median; range) 4 (2–12) 4 (2–11) 0.948
Circumferential extent    0.113
50% 17 (24%) 27 (36%)  
  > 50% 54 (76%) 48 (64%)  
Pretreatment T stage    < 0.001
 T2 0 6 (8%)  
 T3 52 (73%) 62 (83%)  
 T4 19 (27%) 7 (9%)  
Pretreatment N stage    0.119
 N0 12 (17%) 21 (28%)  
 N1 30 (42%) 34 (45%)  
 N2 29 (41%) 20 (27%)  
Pre- treatment CEA level (mean, ng/mL; rang) 27 (5–200) 14 (5–57) 0.001
Post- treatment CEA level (mean, ng/mL; rang) 5 (0.5–45) 6 (0.5–34) 0.605
Normalization of post- treatment CEA Level    0.541
 Normal (< 5 ng/mL) 47 (66%) 46 (61%)  
 Elevated (5 ng/mL) 24 (34%) 29 (39%)  
CEA clearance pattern    0.599
 Exponential decrease (R20.9) 31 (44%) 36 (48%)  
 Non-exponential decrease (R2 < 0.9) 40 (56%) 39 (52%)  
  1. The p value in boldface means statistically significant, that is, less than 0.05