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Table 5 Risk of oesophageal carcinoma associated with occupational, environmental and health related factors

From: Novel risk factors for primary prevention of oesophageal carcinoma: a case-control study from Sri Lanka

Characteristic Cases Controls Non-adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
No. % No. %
Exposure to agrochemicals
 Ever exposed 19 38.8 19 9.7 5.9 (2.8–12.4) 6.57 (1.4–30.3)
 Never exposed (reference)a 30 61.2 177 90.3 1.0 1.0
Exposure to other home/industry based chemicals
 Ever exposed 11 22.4 9 4.6 6.0 (2.3–15.5) NSb
 Never exposed (reference)a 38 77.6 187 95.4 1.0  
Major source of drinking water
 Pipe borne water 27 55.1 65 33.2 2.47 (1.3–4.7) 5.62 (1.7–18.9)
 Ground water (reference)a 22 44.9 131 66.8 1.0 1.0
Indoor air pollution
 Yes 39 79.6 18 9.2 38.6 (16.5–90.0) NSb
 No (reference)a 10 20.4 178 90.8 1.0  
Outdoor air pollution
a. Factory in close vicinity
 Yes 4 8.2 16 8.2 1.0 (0.32–3.1)
 No (reference)a 45 91.8 180 91.8 1.0  
b. House situated adjacent to a main road
 Yes 20 40.8 53 27.0 1.86 (1.0–3.6)
 No 29 59.2 143 73.0 1.0  
On prolonged medication
 Yes 4 8.2 13 6.6 1.25 (0.4–4.0)
 No (reference)a 45 91.8 183 93.4 1.0  
On vitamin supplementation
 Yes 1 2.0 3 1.5 1.34 (0.1–13.2)
 No (reference)a 48 98.0 193 98.5 1.0  
Exposure to radiation
 Ever exposed 19 38.8 19 9.7 5.9 (2.8–12.4) 4.64 (1.4–15.5)
 Never exposed (reference)a 30 61.2 177 90.3 1.0 1.0
  1. aThe category having the lesser proportion of cases
  2. bNot significant in the logistic regression model