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Table 3 Associations between cancer survivorship covariates, and time to statin cessation among statin initiators

From: Statin use in cancer survivors versus the general population: cohort study using primary care data from the UK clinical practice research datalink

  Statin initiators Number of eventsa Person-Years of Follow-Up (hundreds) Crude Rate (per 100 Person-Years) Unadjusted HRb p-value Adjusted HRc p-value
n %
Cancer status (binary)
 Non-cancer 354,961 96.8 183,844 92.5 19.8 1 0.502 1 0.02
 Cancer survivor 11,810 3.2 5962 2.8 20.7 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 1.07 (1.01–1.12)
Sex
 Males 193,646 52.8 98,246 50.6 19.4 1 < 0.001 1 < 0.001
 Females 173,125 47.2 91,560 44.7 20.5 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.05 (1.04–1.06)
Age (yrs)
 40–49 44,088 12.0 26,453 9.8 27.1 1 < 0.001 1 < 0.001
 50–59 95,539 26.1 51,099 24.5 20.8 0.81 (0.80–0.82) 0.80 (0.79–0.82)
 60–69 126,570 34.5 60,763 34.9 17.4 0.69 (0.68–0.70) 0.66 (0.65–0.67)
 70–79 75,425 20.6 37,647 20.5 18.4 0.73 (0.71–0.75) 0.68 (0.67–0.70)
 80+ 25,149 6.9 13,844 5.7 24.2 0.89 (0.85–0.93) 1.14 (1.05–1.24)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 3035 0.8 1773 0.6 28.9 1.25 (1.20–1.30) < 0.001 1.18 (1.14–1.23) < 0.001
 18.5–25 90,123 24.6 48,251 22.6 21.3 1 1
  ≥ 25 273,613 74.6 139,782 72.1 19.4 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 0.94 (0.93–0.95)
Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Normal (< 5) 59,402 16.2 29,003 15.8 18.4 1 < 0.001   
 Mod-High (5–8) 279,538 76.2 146,489 72.4 20.2 1.10 (1.09–1.11)   
 High (> 8) 24,778 6.8 12,533 6.8 18.5 1.01 (0.99–1.03)   
 Missing 3053 0.8        
Smoking status
 Never smoker 117,658 32.1 61,055 31.1 19.6 1 < 0.001 1 < 0.001
 Ex-smoker 169,393 46.2 84,172 45.3 18.6 0.94 (0.93–0.96) 0.98 (0.96–0.99)
 Current smoker 79,720 21.7 44,579 19.0 23.5 1.16 (1.14–1.17) 1.13 (1.12–1.15)
Alcohol status
 Non-drinker 76,637 20.9 40,349 20.0 20.2 1 < 0.001   
 Ex-drinker 13,239 3.6 6783 3.6 18.9 0.95 (0.92–0.97)   
 Current drinker         
  light 143,351 39.1 72,291 39.2 18.4 0.93 (0.90–0.95)   
  moderate 16,097 4.4 8198 4.3 18.9 0.95 (0.91–0.99)   
  heavy 19,720 5.4 10,777 4.7 22.8 1.09 (1.07–1.12)   
  amount unknown 10,869 3.0 5772 2.8 20.3 1.01 (0.96–1.05)   
 Missing 86,858 23.7        
Medical history
 Diabetes 70,990 19.4 34,520 19.9 17.3 0.87 (0.85–0.88) < 0.001 0.83 (0.82–0.84) < 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease 25,278 6.9 12,243 5.7 21.4 1.01 (0.98–1.05) < 0.001   
 Chronic liver disease 6440 1.8 3395 1.4 23.5 1.12 (1.08–1.16) < 0.001   
IMD quintile
 1 (least deprived) 40,769 11.1 21,052 11.7 18.0 1 < 0.001   
  2 43,256 11.8 22,097 11.9 18.6 1.01 (0.97–1.06)   
  3 48,504 13.2 24,908 13.1 19.1 1.03 (0.98–1.09)   
  4 187,806 51.2 98,030 46.1 21.3 1.11 (1.06–1.17)   
 5 (most deprived) 46,436 12.7 23,719 12.6 18.8 1.03 (0.97–1.09)   
Calendar year
 2005–07 155,758 42.5 86,412 56.6 15.3 1 < 0.001   
 2008–10 124,788 34.0 67,538 30.1 22.5 1.27 (1.26–1.29)   
 2011–13 86,225 23.5 35,856 8.7 41.3 1.52 (1.50–1.55)   
  1. aEvents = first cessation of statin therapy defined as a no further prescriptions 90 days after the expected end date of the last prescription
  2. bCox model with time since study entry (i.e. statin initiation) as the timescale
  3. cAdjusted for a priori confounders [age (time-updated), gender, body mass index, smoking status and diabetes (time-updated)]. No other covariates changed the association between cancer survivorship and statin cessation by more than 10%.
  4. All regression models are restricted to patients with complete data for a-priori confounders