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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) expression

From: High expression of forkhead box protein C2 is associated with aggressive phenotypes and poor prognosis in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma

Parameters FOXC2 P value
Low expressionn = 58 (%) High expressionn = 26 (%)
Age (years)
  < 65 18 (31.0) 6 (23.1) 0.603
  ≥ 65 40 (69.0) 20 (76.9)  
Gender
 Male 46 (79.3) 19 (73.1) 0.578
 Female 12 (20.7) 7 (26.9)  
Liver cirrhosis
 Negative 40 (69.0) 11 (42.3) 0.0296a
 Positive 18 (31.0) 15 (57.7)  
T classification
 1 5 (8.6) 3 (11.6) 0.333
 2 20 (34.5) 5 (19.2)  
 3 28 (48.3) 13 (50.0)  
 4 5 (8.6) 5 (19.2)  
Differentiation
 Well or Moderate 57 (98.3) 22 (84.7) 0.0302a
 Poor 1 (1.7) 4 (15.3)  
Tumor size (mm)
  ≤ 20 5 (8.6) 4 (18.2) 0.449
  > 20 53 (91.4) 22 (81.8)  
Pattern of tumor growth
 Eg 49 (84.5) 18 (55.6) 0.143
 Ig 9 (15.5) 8 (44.4)  
Fc-Inf
 Negative 37 (63.8) 11 (42.3) 0.0948
 Positive 21 (36.2) 15 (57.7)  
IM
 Negative 50 (86.2) 20 (76.9) 0.347
 Positive 8 (13.8) 6 (23.1)  
Vv
 Negative 46 (79.3) 22 (81.8) 0.766
 Positive 12 (20.7) 4 (18.2)  
Vp
 Negative 38 (65.5) 17 (65.4) 1
 Positive 20 (34.5) 9 (34.6)  
Va
 Negative 55 (94.8) 25 (96.2) 1
 Positive 3 (5.2) 1 (3.8)  
AFP level (ng/ml) (n = 73)
 Normal (≤10) 27 (55.1) 3 (12.5) 0.000777a
 High (> 10) 22 (44.9) 21 (87.5)  
PIVKA II level (AU/ml) (n = 69)
 Normal (≤40) 19 (39.6) 11 (52.4) 0.43
 High (> 40) 29 (60.4) 10 (47.6)  
Ki67 labeling index
  < 1% 21 (36.2) 3 (11.5) 0.0348a
  ≥ 1% 37 (63.8) 23 (88.5)  
  1. aStatistical significance is indicated by P < 0.05. Eg (expansive growth); Boundary between cancer and surrounding liver tissue is clear. Ig (infiltrative growth); Boundary between cancer and surrounding liver tissue is unclear