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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and univariate comparisons between current and past smokers at the time of the cancer onset

From: Compared characteristics of current vs. past smokers at the time of diagnosis of a first-time lung or head and neck cancer: a cross-sectional study

  Past Smokers Current Smokers p-value
Number of subjects (n; %) 177 (52.1%) 163 (47.9%)  
Gender (n females; %) 27 (15.3%) 35 (21.5%) 0.14
Age (m ± SD) 61.9 ± 9.7 56.0 ± 8.0 < 0.0001
Educational level    0.45
 Elementary / primary school 75 (42.4%) 68 (41.7%)  
 Secondary / high school 75 (42.4%) 77 (47.2%)  
 Undergraduate and more/ college or university 27 (15.2%) 18 (11.1%)  
Workers (n; %) 58 (32.8%) 98 (60.1%) < 0.0001
Married (n; %) 124 (70.1%) 97 (59.5%) 0.04
Living alone (n; %) 35 (19.8%) 45 (27.6%) 0.09
Cancer
Localization    < 0.0001
 1 = lung 119 (67.2%) 58 (35.6%)  
 2 = head & neck 58 (32.8%) 105 (64.4%)  
“0” score at the ECOG performance status (n; %) 77 (43.5%) 47 (28.8%) 0.005
TNM Grade 4 (N = 299) (n; %) 97 (59.2%) 73 (54.1%) 0.38
Presence of metastases (N = 296) (n; %) 72 (44.7%) 40 (29.6%) 0.008
Tobacco
Age of first cigarette (years; m ± SD) 15.6 ± 3.8 15.6 ± 4.1 0.95
Lifelong reported types of smoking, (N = 339) (n; %)
 Manufactured cigarettes 172 (97.2%) 154 (95.1%) 0.31
 Roll-up cigarettes 64 (36.2%) 91 (56.2%) 0.0002
 Cigarillos 82 (46.3%) 58 (35.8%) 0.05
 Cigars 55 (31.1%) 40 (24.7%) 0.19
 Pipe 50 (28.3%) 26 (16.1%) 0.007
Alcohol
 12-month use (n; %) 140 (79.1%) 122 (74.8%) 0.35
 12-month misuse (n; %) 51 (28.8%) 70 (42.9%) 0.007
 AUDIT, (N = 322) (median [IQ]) 4 [2–6] 6 [2–11] 0.002a
 AUDIT-C, (N = 322) (median [IQ]) 4 [1–5] 5 [1–7] 0.01a
 CAST (m ± SD) 0.10 ± 0.43 0.22 ± 0.59 0.019a
MINI 5.0 (N = 337)
 TOTAL (n; %) 61 (34.9%) 72 (44.4%) 0.07
 Current MDD (n; %) 23 (13.1%) 29 (17.9%) 0.22
 Dysthymia (n; %) 2 (1.1%) 3 (1.9%) 0.67b
 Suicide risk (n; %) 39 (22.3%) 43 (26.5%) 0.36
 Lifelong mania/hypomania (n; %) 2 (1.1%) 7 (4.3%) 0.09b
 Schizophrenia (n; %) 10 (5.7%) 14 (8.6%) 0.30
 Panic disorder/ agoraphobia (n; %) 16 (9.1%) 27 (16.7%) 0.04
 Eating Disorder (n; %) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) NA
 Generalized anxiety (n; %) 7 (4.0%) 3 (1.9%) 0.34b
 Antisocial personality disorder (n; %) 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.9%) 0.12b
 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (n; %) 1 (0.6%) 2 (1.2%) 0.61b
 PTSD (n; %) 1 (0.6%) 4 (2.5%) 0.20b
 Other SUD (n; %) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.6%) 0.48b
  1. Abbreviations: AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, AUDIT-C: AUDIT “consumptions” i.e., the 3 first questions of the AUDIT, which pertain to the drinking levels, CAST: Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, ECOG: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, MINI: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, version 5.0, TNM: Tumor/Nodules/Metastases, PTSD: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, SUD: Substance Use Disorder
  2. *a “0” score at the ECOG performance status means “Fully active, able to carry on all predisease activities without restriction”
  3. aMann Whitney test
  4. bFischer’s exact test