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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies- colorectal cancer

From: Associations between aspirin use and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Study source Sex Study period Source of subjects No of case No of control/cohort size Cancer site Exposure assessment Exposure Definition Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Case-control studies
 Iqbal U [47], 2017, China M/F 2001–2011 The Taiwan NHI database 86,597 346,388 Colorectal cancer Prescription Patients had aspirin prescribed at least for 2 months during the 3-year period before the initial cancer diagnosis 1,2,13,14,15,16,17 7
 Friis S [70], 2015, Dermark M/F 1994–2011 Danish Cancer Registry, Aarhus University Prescription Database, Danish National Patient Registry, Danish Civil Registration
System
10,280 10,280 Colorectal cancer Prescription database Have 2 or more prescriptions for aspirin(ever use) 1,2,14,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33. 8
 Rennert G [71], 2010, Israel M/F 1988–2006 The MECC 2648 2566 Colorectal cancer Interviewed Daily aspirin use for at least 3 years 1,2,7,26 5
 Din FV [72], 2010, UK M/F 2001–2008 SCCS 2279 2907 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use > 4 tablets/week for > 1 month 1,2,3,6,8,18,19,34,35 4
 Harris RE [73], 2008, US M/F 2003–2004 The CHRI 326 652 Colon cancer Questionnaire Use at least once per week for more than 1 year 1,3,4,6,7,8,26,36 5
 Kim S [74], 2008, US M/F 2001–2006 North Carolina Colon Cancer Study II 1057 1019 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Any use of aspirin in the past 5 years (ever users) 1,2,7, 8,18,37, 38,39,40 6
 Hoffmeister M [75], 2007, Germany M/F 2003–2004 The Rhine–Neckar–Odenwald region in the South-West of Germany 477 517 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week for at least 1 year(current regular use) 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,22,27,30,41,42,43 8
 Slattery ML [76], 2006, US M/F 1991–1994 KPMCP 2351 2972 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use at least three times a week for 1 month(regular) 1,2,7 7
 Macarthur M [77], 2005, UK M/F 1998–2000 Grampian Health
Board residents
264 408 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use aspirin every day for a month or more(regular) 1,2 6
 Juarranz M [78], 2002, Spain M/F 1995–1996 The Research Unit of the Council of Health and Social Services of the Community ofMadrid 196 228 Colon cancer Questionnaire Consider aspirin use as a continuous numeric variable in milligrams/week -not further defined 1,2 8
 Evans RC [79], 2002, UK M/F Merseyside and Cheshire Cancer Registry 512 512 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use at least once per day(regular) 1,2,26,38 8
 Neugut AI [80], 1998, US M/F 1989–1992 Columbia-Prebyterian Medical Center 256 322 Colon cancer Medical record Use aspirin-not further defined 1,4,5 6
 Rosenberg L [81], 1998, US M/F 1992–1994 Hospital in Massachusetts 942 935 Large bowel carcinoma Questionnaire Use at least 4 days a week for at least 3 months 1,2 9
 La VC [82], 1997, Italy M/F 1992–1996 Population from Italian areas 1357 1891 Colorectal adenoma Questionnaire Use more than four times per week for > 6 months 1,2,5,6,8,18,26,34, 43 7
 Reeves MJ [83], 1996, US F 1991–1992 Wisconsin Cancer Reporting system 21 22 Colorectal cancer Self-reported Use at least one table twice weekly or more than at least 12 months 1,4,8,30 8
 Suh O [84], 1993, US M/F 1982–1991 Roswell Park Tumor Registry and Diagnostic Index 830 1662 Colorectal adenoma Questionnaire Use aspirins for at least 1 year(users) 1,2,5,26 9
 Kune GA [85], 1988, Australia M/F 1980–1981 Population in Melbourne 715 727 Colorectal adenoma Questionnaire, hospital records, and interview Use aspirin “daily” “weekly” or “don’t know- not further defined” 1,2 8
Cohort studies
 Park SY [86], 2017, US M/F 1993–2012 The MEC Study 3879 183,199 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Had ever use of aspirin 1,3,4,6,8,18,19,27,30,34,37,43, 48,49 8
 Kim C [87], 2016, US M 1982–2000 Physicians Health Study 268 446 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use of aspirin- not further defined 6,8,18,19, 20 9
 Soriano LC [88], 2016, UK(STUDY 1) M/F 2000–2011 THIN 3033 10,000 Colorectal cancer Prescription No recorded use at any time(non user) 1,2,3,8,21, 22,24,25 9
 Soriano LC [88], 2016, UK(STUDY 2) M/F 2001–2012 THIN 3174 10,000 Colorectal cancer Prescription No recorded use at any time(non user) 1,2,3,8,21,22,23 9
 Soriano LC [88], 2016, UK(STUDY 3) M/F 2001–2012 THIN 12,333 20,000 Colorectal cancer Prescription No recorded use at any time(non user) 1,2,3,8,21,22 9
 Vaughan LE [89], 2016, US F 2004–2011 IWHS 218 14,386 Colon cancer Questionnaire Never use aspirin (non-user) 1,3,8,22 8
 Cao Y [8], 2016, US M/F 1980–2010
1986–2012
NHS and HPFS 2895 135,965 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use at least 2 times per week(regular) 3,4,6,7,8,18,19,27,30,34,37,42,43,49,50,51,52,53 9
 Lin CC [90], 2015, Chinaa M/F 2000–2009 The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 467 60,828 Colorectal cancer Prescription database Use any low-dose aspirin (75–165 mg) 1,2,54,55 8
 Hollestein LM [91], 2014, Netherlandsa M/F 1998–2010 PHARMO and the Eindhoven Cancer Registry 972 109,276 Colorectal cancer Prescription database Low dose aspirin (≤100 mg daily)- not further defined 1,2,56,72 8
 Brasky TM [92], 2014, US F 1998–2010 WHI 1397 140,933 Colorectal cancer Self-administered questionnaires Use at both baseline and year 3 visits (consistent) 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,37,18,19,22,26,27,33,43,50,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71 9
 Brasky TM [93], 2012, US M/F 2002–2008.12.30 The VITAL 451 64,847 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use ≥1 day/week for ≥ 1 year(regular) 1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,18,19,22,28,30,33,42,43, 50,67,68,69,71 8
 Ruder EH [94], 2011, US M/F 1996–2006 National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study 3894 301,240 Colorectal cancer Self-administered questionnaire Use aspirin during the previous 12 months 1,2,3,4,5, 6,7,8,18,27 7
 Friis S [95], 2009, Denmark M/F 1995–2006 Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study 615 51,053 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use fewer than 2 pills per month (nonuse) 1,2,6,8,14,22,27,30, 7
 Siemes C [96], 2008, Netherlands M/F 1992–2004 The Rotterdam Study 195 7621 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire and prescriptions The absence of a prescription for any non-aspirin or aspirin NSAID(no use) 1,2,3,8,18, 27,34,70,73,74 8
 Vinogradova Y [97], 2007, UKa M/F 1995–2005 QRESEARCH database 1226 5369 Colorectal cancer Prescription database Receive ≥1 prescription for aspirin in the 13 to 48 months before index date 3, 8,22,41 8
 Jacobs EJ [98], 2007, US M/F 1992–2003 Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort 1861 146,113 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Use at least 30 “times” per month(daily use of adult-strength) 1,2,3,5,7,18,22,27,28,30,36,68,52,53 8
 Larsson SC [99], 2006, Sweden M/F 1998–2005 Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men 705 74,250 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use- not further defined 1,2,3,4,5,8,18
28
9
 Muscat JE [100], 2005, US M/F 1983–1999 The Framingham Heart study 145 433 Colorectal cancer Questionnaire Never/< 1/week, 1–3/week, > 3/week 1,2,3,44 9
 Rahme E [101], 2003, Canada M/F 1997–2001 RAMQ 179 2568 Colorectal adenoma Prescription Use at least 1 year 45,46,47 7
 Rodríguez LAG [102], 2001, UKa M/F 1994–1997 The GPRD 2002 943,903 Colorectal cancer Prescription database Never received a single prescription(non-user) 1,2 8
 Schreinemachers DM [63], 1994, US M/F 1971–1987 The National Health and Examination Survey Ι 169 12,668 Colorectal cancer Self reported Use aspirin during the 30-day period before the interview 1,2 6
 Paganini-Hill A [103], 1989, US M/F 1981–1988 Population from Leisure World, Laguna Hills, US 181 13,870 Colon cancer Questionnaire Aspirin use: none,<daily, daily 2 4
  1. 1 = age, 2 = sex, 3 = smoking, 4 = family history, 5 = educational level, 6 = alcohol intake, 7 = race, 8 = BMI, 9 = marital status, 10 = self-rated health, 11==C-reactive protein level, 12 = cholesterol, 13 = Charlson comorbidity index, 14 = statin, 15 = metformin, 16 = ACE inhibitors, 17 = angiotensin II receptor blockers, 18 = physical activity 19 = fruit, vegetable and/or vitamin intake, 20 = seafood and dairy foods intake, 21 = number of PCP visits in the year before the index date, 22 = other NSAIDs, 23 = paracetamol, 24 = insulin, 25 = oral steroids, 26 = area (county/region), 27 = hormone replacement therapy, 28 = history of diabetes mellitus, 29 = history of cholecystectomy, 30 = history of colonoscopy, 31 = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma,32 = antidepressants, 33 = migraine,34 = total energy intake, 35 = deprivation index, 36 = hypertension ampling probability, 37 = ever use of calcium supplements in the past 5 years, 38 = primary care practitioner, 39 = dietary fat intake, 40 = sampling probability, 41 = morbidity (diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, stroke, colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis), 42 = former health checkup, 43 = red meat, 44 = Nitro-vasodilator use, 45 = number of drugs, 46 = number of physician encounters, 47 = all-cause hospitalization in prior year, 48 = dietary fiber, 49 = folate, 50 = height, 51 = Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, 52 = PSA test in past 2 y, 53 = mammogram in past 2 y, 54 = duration of diabetes, 55 = propensity score at baseline, 56 = unique number of hospitalizations in the year prior to start of follow up, 57 = observational study enrollment, 58 = diet modification trial enrollment, 59 = screening for cancer, 60 = age at menarche, 61 = age at menopause, 62 = gravidity, 63 = age atfirst birth, 64 = duration of estrogen therapy, 65 = duration of combined postmenopausal hormone therapy, 66 = hysterectomy status, 67 = use of antihypertensive medication, 68 = history of coronary heart disease, 69 = use of cholesterol-lowering medication, 70 = history of arthritis, 71 = history of Ulcer, 72 = unique number of dispensing
  2. AARP AARP diet and health study, CHRI Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, GPRD General Practitioners Research Database, HPFS Health Professionals follow-up study, IWHS Iowa Women’s Health Study, KPMCP Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, MEC Multiethnic Cohort Study, MECC the molecular epidemiology of colorectal cancer, NHS nurses’ health study, RAMQ Re′gie de l’Assurance Maladie du Que’bec, SCCS study of colorectal cancer in Scotland, THIN the health improvement Network, VITAL the vitamins and lifestyle, WHI women’s health initiative
  3. aStudy deemed to be prone to immortal time bias