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Table 2 Extracted data relating to types of recreational physical activity

From: Physical activity and risk of testicular cancer: a systematic review

Author Study design Exposure Level of exposure/ comparator Measure of relative risk (OR/RR/HR) Reported crude OR/RR/HR (95% CI) Reported adjusted
OR/RR/HR (95% CI)
Number of exposed vs. nonexposed cases Number of exposed vs. nonexposed controls/cohort Adjustment for confounding
Coldman [6] CCS Cycling Horse-riding Motorcycling Soccer Regular participation throughout lifetime OR Cycling 1.99 (1.04–3.81)   44 exposed 84 non-exposed
(34% exposed)
28 exposed
100 non-exposed
(22% exposed)
Controls matched for age and year of diagnosis but analysed in unmatched fashion
Adjust cycling and horse-riding for cryptorchidism, juvenile onset inguinal hernia and for each other
Horse-riding 3.31 (1.36–8.25)   25 exposed 103 non-exposed
(20% exposed)
9 exposed
119 non-exposed
(7% exposed)
Motorcycling
1.04 (0.43–2.41
  16 exposed
112 non-exposed
(13% exposed)
15 exposed
113 non-exposed
(12% exposed)
Soccer 1.11 (0.50–2.50)   8 exposed
110 non-exposed (14% exposed)
16 exposed
112 non-exposed
(13% exposed)
Cycling as a teenager for recreation or for transport to school Regular participation as a teen   In teens Cycling for recreation
1.81 (0.88–3.75)
  62 exposed
66 non-exposed
(48% exposed)
49 exposed
79 non-exposed
(38% exposed)
Cycling to school 1.79 (0.91–3.55)   40 exposed
88 non-exposed
(31% exposed)
27 exposed
101 non-exposed
(21% exposed)
Frequency of horse riding ≥1 time/mth for ≥1 year Frequent v.s. non-frequent
2.09 (0.88–5.08)
  21 exposed 107 non-exposed
(16% exposed)
11 exposed 117 non-exposed
(9% exposed)
Forman [20] CCS Cycling Horse-riding Contact sports (football, rugby, hockey, lacrosse) Racquet sports Water sports Athletics Cricket, baseball and rounders
Martial arts
Regular participation at ref. age, age 16 and age 20 OR   Cycling, horse-riding, racquet sports, cricket, baseball and rounders
Unrelated to TC risk
Information not provided Information not provided Controls matched for age
Additional adjustment for cryptorchidism, juvenile onset inguinal hernia and total exercise
Contact sports
At ref. age
0.73 (0.55–0.97)
At age 20
0.80 (0.64–1.00
  
Water sports
At ref. age
0.87 (0.66–1.16)
At age 16
0.74 (0.58–0.96)
At age 20
0.74 (0.56–0.98
  
Athletics
At ref. age
0.70 (0.51–0.97
  
Martial arts
At ref. age
0.67 (0.29–1.54)
At age 16
0.42 (0.21–0.82)
At age 20
0.52 (0.29–0.94)
  
Littman [22] CCS Cycling
Horse-riding
Motor biking
Mountain biking
Soccer
Basketball
Wrestling
Regular participation during grades 7–12-yes/no OR   Cycling
1.0 (0.7–1.3)
250 exposed
141 non-exposed
(64% exposed)
658 exposed
365 non-exposed
(64% exposed)
Controls matched for age and area of residence
Additional adjustment for income, ethnicity, cryptorchidism.
Each activity further adj. For all other activities
Horse-riding
0.8 (0.6–1.1)
68 exposed
323 non-exposed
(17% exposed)
210 exposed
813 non-exposed
(21% exposed)
Motor biking
0.9 (0.7–1.2)
144 exposed
247 non-exposed
(37% exposed)
409 exposed
614 non-exposed
(40% exposed)
Mountain
biking 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
51 exposed
263 non-exposed (16% exposed)
143 exposed
734 non-exposed (16% exposed)
Duration of participation during grades 7–12 in tertiles    Soccer 1–8 months
1.9 (1.2–3.1)
Basketball 1–8 months
1.5 (1.0–2.2)
Wrestling
6–11 months
0.4 (0.2–0.8)
≥12 months
0.8 (0.4–1.4)