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Table 2 Extracted data relating to types of recreational physical activity

From: Physical activity and risk of testicular cancer: a systematic review

Author Study design Exposure Level of exposure/ comparator Measure of relative risk (OR/RR/HR) Reported crude OR/RR/HR (95% CI) Reported adjusted OR/RR/HR (95% CI) Number of exposed vs. nonexposed cases Number of exposed vs. nonexposed controls/cohort Adjustment for confounding
Coldman [6] CCS Cycling Horse-riding Motorcycling Soccer Regular participation throughout lifetime OR Cycling 1.99 (1.04–3.81)   44 exposed 84 non-exposed (34% exposed) 28 exposed 100 non-exposed (22% exposed) Controls matched for age and year of diagnosis but analysed in unmatched fashion Adjust cycling and horse-riding for cryptorchidism, juvenile onset inguinal hernia and for each other
Horse-riding 3.31 (1.36–8.25)   25 exposed 103 non-exposed (20% exposed) 9 exposed 119 non-exposed (7% exposed)
Motorcycling 1.04 (0.43–2.41   16 exposed 112 non-exposed (13% exposed) 15 exposed 113 non-exposed (12% exposed)
Soccer 1.11 (0.50–2.50)   8 exposed 110 non-exposed (14% exposed) 16 exposed 112 non-exposed (13% exposed)
Cycling as a teenager for recreation or for transport to school Regular participation as a teen   In teens Cycling for recreation 1.81 (0.88–3.75)   62 exposed 66 non-exposed (48% exposed) 49 exposed 79 non-exposed (38% exposed)
Cycling to school 1.79 (0.91–3.55)   40 exposed 88 non-exposed (31% exposed) 27 exposed 101 non-exposed (21% exposed)
Frequency of horse riding ≥1 time/mth for ≥1 year Frequent v.s. non-frequent 2.09 (0.88–5.08)   21 exposed 107 non-exposed (16% exposed) 11 exposed 117 non-exposed (9% exposed)
Forman [20] CCS Cycling Horse-riding Contact sports (football, rugby, hockey, lacrosse) Racquet sports Water sports Athletics Cricket, baseball and rounders Martial arts Regular participation at ref. age, age 16 and age 20 OR   Cycling, horse-riding, racquet sports, cricket, baseball and rounders Unrelated to TC risk Information not provided Information not provided Controls matched for age Additional adjustment for cryptorchidism, juvenile onset inguinal hernia and total exercise
Contact sports At ref. age 0.73 (0.55–0.97) At age 20 0.80 (0.64–1.00   
Water sports At ref. age 0.87 (0.66–1.16) At age 16 0.74 (0.58–0.96) At age 20 0.74 (0.56–0.98   
Athletics At ref. age 0.70 (0.51–0.97   
Martial arts At ref. age 0.67 (0.29–1.54) At age 16 0.42 (0.21–0.82) At age 20 0.52 (0.29–0.94)   
Littman [22] CCS Cycling Horse-riding Motor biking Mountain biking Soccer Basketball Wrestling Regular participation during grades 7–12-yes/no OR   Cycling 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 250 exposed 141 non-exposed (64% exposed) 658 exposed 365 non-exposed (64% exposed) Controls matched for age and area of residence Additional adjustment for income, ethnicity, cryptorchidism. Each activity further adj. For all other activities
Horse-riding 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 68 exposed 323 non-exposed (17% exposed) 210 exposed 813 non-exposed (21% exposed)
Motor biking 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 144 exposed 247 non-exposed (37% exposed) 409 exposed 614 non-exposed (40% exposed)
Mountain biking 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 51 exposed 263 non-exposed (16% exposed) 143 exposed 734 non-exposed (16% exposed)
Duration of participation during grades 7–12 in tertiles    Soccer 1–8 months 1.9 (1.2–3.1) Basketball 1–8 months 1.5 (1.0–2.2) Wrestling 6–11 months 0.4 (0.2–0.8) ≥12 months 0.8 (0.4–1.4)