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Table 5 Smoker status and its association with prostate cancer and aggressiveness taking into account cessation time at interview

From: Smoking and prostate cancer: a life course analysis

Smoking status at interview. Controls n = 794 Overall PC Gleason < 7 Gleason = 7 Gleason ≥ 8
Cases n = 394 ORa 95% CI N ORa 95% CI n ORa 95% CI n ORa 95% CI
Never 261 128 1.0 35 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
Former 301 209 1.13 0.70–1.83 54 1.30 0.58–2.85 73 1.03 0.51–2.07 72 0.99 0.47–2.08
Current 232 57 0.42 0.20–0.86 12 0.57 0.12–2.80 20 0.33 0.11–0.93 23 0.42 0.34–5.35
Never 261 128 1.0 35 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
Formerb
  > 10 years 259 147 1.40 0.86–2.30 35 2.51 0.62–10.1 54 1.17 0.57–2.38 52 1.21 0.57–2.59
  ≤ 10 years 42 62 4.44 1.90–10.4 19 1.65 0.73–3.72 19 2.25 0.67–7.54 20 3.42 0.96–12.2
 Current 232 57 0.95 0.41–2.19 12 1.80 0.40–8.20 20 0.52 0.16–1.76 23 0.88 0.25–3.09
 Never 261 128 1.0 35 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
Formerb
  > 15 years 204 114 1.36 0.83–2.24 30 1.38 0.61–3.15 41 1.13 0.55–2.30 39 1.28 0.59–2.75
  ≤ 15 years 97 95 3.33 1.47–7.58 24 2.64 0.68–10.5 32 1.72 0.54–5.49 33 3.81 1.10–13.2
 Current 232 57 1.05 0.42–2.62 12 0.57 0.12–2.80 20 0.51 0.14–1.94 23 1.34 0.34–5.35
 Never 261 128 1.0 35 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
Formerb
  > 20 years 169 91 1.28 0.78–2.08 23 1.44 0.64–3.24 33 1.08 0.54–2.21 31 1.18 0.55–2.54
  ≤ 20 years 132 118 3.22 1.45–7.11 31 3.44 0.94–12.6 40 1.68 0.55–5.16 41 3.78 1.14–12.5
 Current 232 57 1.15 0.45–2.95 12 0.93 0.18–4.62 20 0.53 0.14–2.07 23 1.55 0.37–6.43
  1. Gleason information was available for 383 cases; 8 cases were not considered in stratified analyses Gleason = 7 or Gleason ≥8, because they were just classified as Gleason ≥7
  2. Text in bold denotes statistical significance
  3. aAdjusted by age at interview, educational level, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, chronic and sexually transmitted diseases, life course physical activity, dairy energy intake and number of cigarettes and smoking duration
  4. bFormer smokers were categorized according to cessation time before interview