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Table 4 Association between smoking history and prostate cancer aggressiveness at diagnosis

From: Smoking and prostate cancer: a life course analysis

Smoking assessment approaches. Gleason ≤ 6 Gleason ≥ 7 Gleason = 7 Gleason ≥ 8
Cases n = 101 OR (95% CI) Cases n = 282 OR (95% CI) Cases n = 140 OR (95% CI) Cases n = 134 OR (95% CI)
Smoking status at interviewa
 Never 35 1.0 91 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
 Former 54 1.30(0.58–2.85) 147 1.03(0.60–1.77) 73 1.03(0.51–2.07) 72 0.99 (0.47–2.08)
 Current 12 0.57(0.12–2.80) 44 0.97(0.35–2.68) 20 0.33(0.11–0.93) 23 0.42 (0.34–5.35)
Average smoking index in life (packs/years)b
 Never smoker 35 1.0 91 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
 0.15–5.2 24 1.08(0.61–1.94 57 1.03(0.69–1.55) 29 0.98(0.58–1.65) 27 1.15 (0.65–2.0)
 5.3–14.0 16 0.73(0.38–1.39) 57 0.98(0.66–1.48) 29 1.02(0.61–1.72) 27 1.06 (0.60–1.86)
 14.01–112.0 26 1.08(0.61–1.90) 77 1.14(0.78–1.67) 35 1.04(0.63–1.72) 41 1.42 (0.85–2.36)
Life course smoking patterns
Among ever smokerb, c
 Never 35 1.0 91 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
 A 59 1.02(0.64–1.63) 160 1.05(0.76–1.45) 84 1.36(0.88–2.11) 73 1.11(0.71–1.74)
 B 7 0.85(0.35–2.08) 31 1.30(0.76–2.22) 9 1.64(0.65–4.15) 22 2.30 (1.21–4.38)
Life course smoking patterns
Among former smokerb, c
 Never 35 1.0 91 1.0 47 1.0 39 1.0
 A 46 1.29(0.78–2.13) 121 1.30 (0.92–1.83) 65 1.35 (0.64–2.84) 54 1.34 (0.83–2.17)
 B 8 2.58(0.99–6.75) 26 2.59 (1.35–4.98) 8 3.23 (0.64–16.3) 18 4.65 (2.17–9.92)
  1. Text in bold denotes statistical significance
  2. Gleason ≤6 well-differentiated PC, Gleason ≥7 highly aggressive PC, Gleason = 7 Moderately differentiated PC and Gleason ≥8 Poorly differentiated
  3. Gleason information was available for 383 cases
  4. aAll models for smoker status at interview, were adjusted by age at interview, educational level, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, chronic and sexually transmitted diseases, life course physical activity, dairy and energy intake, number of cigarettes and smoking duration
  5. bAll models were adjusted by age at interview, educational level, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, chronic and sexually transmitted diseases, life course physical activity, dairy and energy intake
  6. cPattern A: characterized by males who reported low and constant smoking intensity, Pattern B: males with an initial period of low smoking intensity, followed by an increase during the second period