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Table 1 Study characteristics and quality assessment of studies included in systematic review of physical activity and risk of colorectal cancer with higher risk subgroups

From: Effects of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk among family history and body mass index subgroups: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year Age Range (years) Country Case-control: control sample & matching Cohort: study name Physical activity period Comparison of Physical Activity Cancer Site/Number of Cases Method of Case Confirmation Assessment of Confounding Subgroups analyzed Method of Subgroup Assessment
Case-Control Studies
 Boutron-Ruault, 2001 [28] 30–79 France Population No matching Regulara, b Sedentary vs. High (regular physical exercise) Colorectal: 171 Histological exam Age and sex FHCRC Interview questionnaire
 Boyle, 2012 [29] 40–79 Australia Population Frequency Adulthood (≥19 years) Definite vs. Never Resistance training Colon: 552
Rectal: 318
Histological exam Age group, sex, resistance training in other age periods, lifetime moderate and vigorous non-resistance training rerecraetional physical activity, lifetime occupational activity and energy intake BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Gerhardsson de Verdier, 1990 [30] 40–69 Sweden Population Frequency 1950-1985b Very active vs. fairly active Left colon: 147 Histo-pathological diagnosis and ICD-7 codes Year of birth and sex BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Hou, 2004 [31] 30–74 China Population Frequency Lifetime >94.3 MET-h/wk. vs. <48.3 MET-h/wk Colon: 931 Histo-pathology or other methods Age, education, family income, marital status, total energy intake, intake of red meat, carotene and fiber, number of pregnancies and menopausal status BMI Interview questionnaire
 Huang, 2004 [32] ≥18 Japan Non-cancer outpatients No matching Regulara ≥3 times/month vs. <3 times/month Colorectal: 1352 Medical data from the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital Age, sex FHCRC Interview questionnaire
 Mao, 2003 [33] 20–76 Canada Population Frequency Past 2 years ≥24.6 MET-h/wk. vs. <8.8 MET-h/wk Rectal: 1447 Histological exam Age, province, education, total caloric dietary fiber, vegetable and fruit intake, smoking and alcohol consumption BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Parent, 2011 [34] 35–70 Canada Population Frequency Overall activity in adult lifeb Higher (active at work with recreational PA or very active at work) vs. Lower (sedentary at work or active at work without recreational PA) Colon: 496 Rectal: 248 Pathological confirmation Age, socio-economic status, education, ethnicity, respondent status, smoking, alcohol/β-carotene (colon) and beer (rectum) BMI Interview questionnaire
 Slattery, 1997 [35,36,37] 30–79 USA Population Frequency Lifetime High (>1000 kcal/wk) vs. Low (0 kcal/wk) Colon: 2073 Pathology report Age at diagnosis, FHCRC, BMI, dietary fiber and calcium, use of aspirin or NSAIDs, dietary cholesterol and energy intake BMI and FHCRC Interview questionnaire
 Zhang, 2006 [38] 40–85 USA Population Frequency Adulthood ≥2 times/wk. vs. <1 time/month Colon: 685 Histological exam Age, sex, education level, dietary intake of fat and fiber and FHCRC BMI Self-administered questionnaire
Cohort Studies
 Ballard-Barbash, 1990 [39] 30–62 USA Framingham Study Regulara High vs. low tertile of PA index Colon: 152 Medical history from cohort records Age BMI Interview questionnaire
 Friedenreich, 2006 [16] 35–70 Europe European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Past year Active vs. Inactive Colon: 1094 Population based cancer registries, health insurance records, pathology registries Age, centre, energy and fibre intake, education, smoking BMI Self-report and clinical examination
 Larsson, 2006 [40] 45–79 Sweden Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) Year before study enrolment ≥60 min/day vs. <10 min/day Colorectal: 496 ICD-9 codes in the National and Regional Swedish Cancer registers Education, FHCRC, history of diabetes, smoking and aspirin use BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Lee, I., 1994 [41] 30–79 USA Harvard Alumni Health Study Regulara Highly active (≥2500 kcal/wk) vs. Inactive (<1000 kcal/wk) Colon: 280 Questionnaire and death certificates Age, BMI and parental history of CRC BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Lee, I., 1997 [42] 40–84 USA Physician’s Health Study Regulara 1+ times/week vs. <1 time/week Colon: 217 Pathology reports in medical records Age, alcohol consumption and treatment assignment BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Lee, K., 2007 [43] 40–69 Japan Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC) Regulara,b >43.75 MET-h/day vs. <28.25 MET-h/day Colorectal: 486 Population-based cancer registries and death certificates, 94.7% verified by histological exam Age, study area, FHCRC, smoking, alcohol intake, intake of red mean, dietary fiber and folate BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Morikawa, 2013 [45] 30–75 USA Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) Regular (mean of all past 2-year measures) ≥9 MET-h/wk. vs. <9 MET-h/wk. Colorectal: 861 Medical records and pathology reports Alcohol, folate, vitamin D, calcium, caloric and red meat intake, current smoking status, smoking before 30 years of age, current multivitamin use, current aspirin use, previous sigmoidoscopy, and family history of colorectal cancer BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Schmid, 2016 [46] 50–71 USA National Institutes of Health AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study) Past 10 yearsb >7 h/wk. MVPA vs. None Colon: 4151 Cancer registry records. Self-reports and confirmation through medical records used to ascertain completeness of reporting (~90%) Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, family history of colon cancer, hormone replacement therapy use (women only), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, total fiber intake, red meat intake and alcohol consumption BMI Self-administered questionnaire
 Thune, 1996 [44] 20–49 Norway Population-based Cohort of Norway Past year Active vs. sedentary Colon: 335 Cancer Registry of Norway, 95% verified by histological exam Age at entry, geographic region BMI Self-administered questionnaire with clinical examination for inconsistency
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FHCRC first-degree family history of colorectal cancer, MET metabolic equivalent of task, hr./wk. hours per week, PA physical activity, CRC colorectal cancer
  2. aTime period of physical activity assessed not specified
  3. bMeasures overall activity (occupational and recreational)