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Table 3 Clinicopathological and genetic data of differentiated thyroid cancers classified by classes based on gene expression

From: CRABP1, C1QL1 and LCN2 are biomarkers of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and predict extrathyroidal extension

  C1QL1 fold change   LCN2 fold change   CRABP1 fold change   CILP fold change  
  Normal ≤ 1 Gain > 1 P value Normal ≤ 1 Gain > 1 P value Loss < −1 Normal ≥ −1 P value Loss < −1 Normal ≥ −1 P value
DTC (n = 98)
Age (n) 33 56 NS (0.318) 31 55 NS (0.614) 75 14 NS (0.826) 54 34 NS (0.474)
 Mean (years) 40.9 ± 2.4 44.2 ± 2.4   42.0 ± 2.2 44.0 ± 2.4   43.4 ± 1.9 41.64 ± 3.7   42.9 ± 2.3 44.0 ± 2.7  
Tumour size (n) 31 54 NS (0.063) 29 53 NS (0.680) 71 14 NS (0.220) 51 33 NS (0.582)
 Mean (cm) 2.20 ± 0.22 3.10 ± 0.27   2.59 ± 0.32 2.67 ± 0.24   2.86 ± 0.22 2.29 ± 0.43   2.87 ± 0.28 2.49 ± 0.23  
Gender (n) 33 56 NS (0.148) 31 55 NS (0.232) 75 14 NS (0.350) 54 34 NS (0.175)
 Female (%) 26 (78.8) 50 (89.3)   28 (90.3) 45 (81.8)   63 (84.0) 13 (92.9)   44 (81.5) 31 (91.2)  
 Male (%) 7 (21.2) 6 (10.7)   3 (9.7) 10 (18.2)   12 (16.0) 1 (7.1)   10 (18.5) 3 (8.8)  
Capsule (n) 30 50 NS (0.263) 26 51 NS (0.099) 66 14 0.037 49 30 NS (0.128)
 Positive (%) 18 (60.0) 25 (50.0)   17 (65.4) 24 (47.1)   39 (59.1) 4 (28.6)   29 (59.2) 13 (43.3)  
Capsular invasion (n) 17 23 NS (0.496) 15 23 NS (0.332) 37 3 NS (0.704) 28 11 NS (0.191)
 Positive (%) 12 (70.6) 15 (65.2)   11 (73.3) 14 (60.9)   25 (67.6) 2 (66.7)   17 (60.7) 9 (81.8)  
Vascular invasion (n) 30 51 NS (0.516) 28 51 NS (0.245) 67 14 NS (0.060) 50 30 NS (0.261)
 Positive (%) 17 (56.7) 30 (58.8)   14 (50.0) 31 (60.8)   42 (62.7) 5 (35.7)   30 (60.0) 15 (50.0)  
Lymph node metastasis (n) 31 54 NS (0.398) 30 53 NS (0.073) 71 14 NS (0.397) 51 33 NS (0.074)
 Positive (%) 7 (22.6) 15 (27.8)   5 (16.7) 18 (34.0)   21 (29.6) 3 (21.4)   10 (19.6) 12 (36.4)  
Extrathyroidal extension (n) 30 51 0.003 29 50 0.020 67 13 NS (0.328) 48 32 NS (0.332)
 Positive (%) 4 (13.3) 23 (45.1)   5 (17.2) 21 (42.0)   23 (34.3) 3 (23.1)   17 (35.4) 9 (28.1)  
Distant metastasis (n) 31 54 NS (0.096) 30 53 NS (0.401) 71 14 NS (0.397) 51 33 NS (0.657)
 Positive (%) 5 (9.3)   1 (3.33) 4 (7.55)   5 (7.04))   2 (3.92) 2 (6.06)  
Lymphocytic thyroiditis (n) 32 51 0.003 30 51 NS (0.416) 69 14 NS (0.563) 49 33 NS (0.354)
 Positive (%) 7 (21.9) 28 (54.9)   12 (40.0) 23 (45.1)   31 (44.9) 6 (42.9)   19 (38.8) 15 (45.5)  
Oncocytic (n) 31 50 NS (0.290) 28 51 0.018 67 14 NS (0.329) 48 32 NS (0.473)
 Positive (%) 5 (16.1) 12 (24.0)   2 (7.14) 15 (29.4)   13 (19.4) 4 (28.6)   9 (18.8) 7 (21.9)  
PAX8-PPARG rearrangements (n) 33 56 NS (0.371) 31 55 NS (0.360) 75 14 NS (0.843) 54 34 NS (0.386)
 Positive (%) 1 (3.03)   1 (3.23)   1 (1.33)   1 (2.94)  
RET/PTC rearrangements (n) 33 56 NS (0.493) 31 55 NS (0.174) 75 14 NS (0.617) 54 34 NS (0.160)
 Positive (%) 5 (15.1) 10 (17.9)   3 (9.68) 11 (20.0)   12 (16.0) 2 (14.3)   7 (13.0) 8 (23.5)  
RET/PTC1 rearrangement (n) 33 56 NS (0.618) 31 55 NS (0.163) 75 14 NS (0.425) 54 34 NS (0.070)
 Positive (%) 4 (12.1) 7 (12.5)   2 (6.45) 9 (16.4)   10 (13.3) 1 (7.14)   4 (7.41) 7 (20.6)  
RET/PTC3 rearrangement (n) 33 56 NS (0.629) 31 55 1 75 14 1 54 34 NS (0.614)
 Positive (%) 1 (1.79)     1 (1.85)  
BRAF mutation (n) 33 56 <0.001 31 55 0.031 75 14 0.025 54 34 NS (0.331)
 Positive (%) 18 (32.1)   3 (9.68) 16 (29.1)   19 (25.3)   13 (24.1) 6 (17.6)  
NRAS mutation (n) 33 56 NS (0.213) 31 55 NS (0.300) 75 14 NS (0.090) 54 34 0.001
 Positive (%) 7 (21.2) 7 (12.5)   6 (19.4) 7 (12.7)   13 (17.3)   14 (25.9)  
TERT promoter mutation (n) 33 56 NS (0.244) 31 55 NS (0.706) 75 14 NS (0.595) 54 34 NS (0.669)
 Positive (%) 3 (5.36)   1 (3.23) 2 (3.64)   3 (4.00)   2 (3.70) 1 (2.94)  
  1. n, number of cases with available data; 1, no statistics were computed due to constant numbers of one feature
  2. Bold values indicate the result was statistically significant