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Table 1 Cancer incidence and hazard ratios of farm, rural non-farm and urban men, 2006–2009

From: Comparison of cancer incidence in Australian farm residents 45 years and over, compared to rural non-farm and urban residents - a data linkage study

Cancer Type (ICD9)a Cohort residence Cases Standardised Adjusted Hazard ratios (95% CI) for variables remaining in final model (excl. Age)/other notes
No. incident cases and total person-years n = 123,882 (95% Cl) (95% Cl)
All malignant neoplasms (excl. non-melanoma skin cancer ) Farm n = 9281 496 91.7 (83.1–100.3) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
C00 - C98 (excl. C44) Rural non-farm n = 57,330 3814 102.9 (99.6–106.1) 1.09 (0.99–1.21) • Smoking status
n = 7957
person-years = 463,068
Urban n = 57,271 3647 98.0 (94.8–101.2) 1.08 (0.97–1.20)  never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 1.09 (1.04–1.15)
 current HR = 1.11 (0.99–1.23)
• Annual household income $70,000 and over c
 yes vs no HR = 0.92 (0.86–0.98)
Prostate Farm 252 98.5 (85.7–111.3) 1.00 (ref) • Age b
(C61) Rural non-farm 1780 102.8 (98.0–107.6) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) • Family history prostate cancer
n = 3647
Person-years = 470,298
Urban 1615 97.2 (92.4–102.0) 1.01 (0.88–1.16)  yes vs no HR = 1.83 (1.68–1.99)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 0.96 (0.89–1.02)
 current HR = 0.80 (0.68–0.93)
Colorectal Farm 62 100.3 (72.2–128.5) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C18 - C21) Rural non-farm 512 106.0 (96.7–115.3) 1.12 (0.86–1.46) • Family history colorectal cancer
n = 1040
Person-years = 475,307
Urban 466 95.0 (86.3–103.8) 1.02 (0.78–1.33)  yes vs no HR = 1.31 (1.12–1.54)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 1.30 (1.14–1.48)
 current HR = 1.26 (0.96–1.66)
Lung Farm 19 71.4 (39.7–116.1) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C34) Rural non-farm 207 105.1 (90.6–119.5) 1.19 (0.70–2.02) • Family history lung cancer
n = 426
Person-years = 476,776
Urban 200 95.6 (82.2–109.1) 1.22 (0.71–2.09)  yes vs no HR = 1.46 (1.06–2.01)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 6.52 (4.31–9.87)
 current HR = 18.77 (11.72–30.05)
• Annual household income over $70,000 c
 Yes vs no HR = 0.48 (0.32–0.73)
Melanoma Farm 75 108.5 (81.3–135.6) 1.00 (ref) • Ageb
(C43) Rural non-farm 491 101.6 (92.5–110.6) 0.90 (0.71–1.15) • Family history melanoma
n = 1051
Person-years = 475,264
Urban 485 98.4 (89.5–107.2) 0.87 (0.68–1.11)  yes vs no HR = 2.06 (1.71–2.47)
• Smoking status
 never HR = 1.00 ref.
 past HR = 0.83 (0.73–0.94)
 current HR = 0.56 (0.40–0.79)
• Tannability (response of skin repeatedly exposed to sunlight in summer without protection)
 very tan HR = 1.00 ref
 moderate tan HR = 1.52 (1.29–1.80)
 mild tan HR = 2.16 (1.80–2.59)
 never tan/freckle HR = 2.39 (1.90–3.01)
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Farm 14 64.6 (34.8–109.2) 1.00 (ref) • Age b
(C82 - C85) Rural non-farm 117 93.7 (76.6–110.8) 0.88 (0.50–1.55) • Annual household income $70,000/year and over and red meat consumption remained as non-significant confounders
n = 269
Person-years = 476,768
Urban 138 106.5 (88.5–124.4) 0.96 (0.56–1.73)
  1. aICD9 - International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision
  2. bAll models included age stratified by five-year age-bands at risk. Age remained significant in all models, but stratified hazard ratios are not reported
  3. cRecords with missing data on income constituted 16% of the available sample and were excluded from this model