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Table 4 Summary of results of RCTs included in subgroup analysis

From: Low level laser therapy (Photobiomodulation therapy) for breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review

Studies Limb circumference/volume Pain intensity Range of motion
Immediately after end of all sessions Short-term follow-up
(< 6 months)
Immediately after end of all sessions Short-term follow-up
(< 6 months)
Immediately after end of all sessions Short-term follow-up
(< 6 months)
LLLT (PBM) vs. sham laser
Omar et al. 2011 [48] + + NR NR + NR
Kaviani et al. 2006 [47] NR +* NR + NR
Carati et al. 2003 [46] +* NR NR
LLLT (PBM) vs. conventional therapy
Ridner et al. 2013 [49] NR NR NR NR NR
Kozanoglu et al. 2009 [50] + NR NR
Maiya et al. 2008 [51] + NR + NR NR NR
LLLT (PBM) vs. a waiting list control
Lau and Cheing 2009 [52] + NR NR NR NR
  1. +: LLLT was more effective than the control group; −: LLLT was not more effective than the control group; *comparison at 1 month post treatment
  2. LLLT low level laser therapy, PBM photobiomodulation, NR not reported