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Table 3 Summary of Contextual Factors and Implementation Strategies

From: A systematic review of clinic and community intervention to increase fecal testing for colorectal cancer in rural and low-income populations in the United States – How, what and when?

Study Participant characteristics N clinics or sites Study site characteristics Implementation strategies
Race/ Ethnicitya Screen-ing status Socio-economic indicators Health systemsb PBRN affiliated/ Other EHR System Baseline CRC screening Rural or urban Development Training and/or monitoring Delivered by
Clinic-based Studies
 Baker, 2014 [40] Latinos Prior FOBT 4 Yes, NOS 17% in 2007; 43% in 2009 Urban To address known barriers NR Clinic
 Coronado, 2011 [43] Latinos 1 Yes, NOS NR Urban Collaboratively designed Training Clinic
 Coronado, 2014 [61] Not up-to-date Uninsured 1 Yes, NOS 5.1% in 2012 Urban Clinic adapted workflows Training, meetings Both
 Davis, 2013 [44] Not up-to-date Low-income 8 No, paper charts 1–2% at Baseline Rural Focus groups & interviews Training Both
 Friedman, 2001 [45] African American Not up-to-date Low-income 1 Unclear NR Urban NR NR External
 Goldberg, 2004 [46] African American Low-income 1 Yes, NOS NR Urban NR NR Both
 Goldman, 2015 [47] Latinos Not up-to-date 8 Yes, GE Centricity 17% in 2007; 43% in 2009 Urban Modeled after prior intervention NR Clinic
 Greiner, 2014 [48] Not up-to-date Low-income 9 Unclear NR Urban Interviews, usability testing NR External
 Gupta, 2013 [49] Not up-to-date Uninsured 13 Unclear NR Urban NR NR Unclear
 Hendren, 2014 [50] Ethnic minority Low-income 1 Yes, NOS NR Urban NR NR Both
 Jandorf, 2005 [51] Not up-to-date Low-income 1 Unclear NR Urban Focus groups NR External
 Jean-Jacques, 2012 [52] Ethnic minority Not up-to-date Low-income; uninsured 1 Yes, NOS 17% in 2008; 36% in 2009 Urban NR Training, supervision Both
 Lasser, 2011 [53] Multi-cultural Not up-to-date Low-income 6, PBRN Yes, EPIC NR Urban Prior research, piloting Training, meetings External
 Levy, 2012 [54]; Levy, 2013 [55] Not up-to-date 16, PBRN Both paper and EHR, NOS 54.3% at baseline Rural NR NR External
 Potter, 2011 [56] Multi-cultural Not up-to-date 6 Both paper and EHR, NOS NR Urban Piloted intervention Training, observation visits Clinic
 Potter, 2011 [66] Chinese-American Not up-to-date Low-income 1 Yes, NOS NR Urban Tailored with clinic leader input Training, observation visits Clinic
 Roetzheim, 2004 [57] Uninsured 8 Unclear NR Rural NR Training, audits & feedback Clinic
 Singal, 2016 [58] Multi-cultural Not up-to-date Low-income 12 Unclear NR Urban NR Training External
 Tu, 2006 [60] Chinese 1 Unclear NR Urban Interviews, focus groups NR Both
 Tu, 2014 [64] Vietnamese & Chinese 2 Yes, ICHS EMR NR Urban Adapted from prior intervention Training Both
Community-based Studies
 Braun, 2005 [41] Native Hawaii-ans 16 civic clubs No NR NR Surveys, focus groups NR Both
 Campbell, 2004 [42] African American 12 churches No NR Rural Focus groups Training Com-munity
 Larkey, 2006 [63] Latino Churches & com-munity orgs (N = NR) No NR Urban Staff developed NR Com-munity
 Thompson, 2006 [59] Latino 20 agricultural communities No NR Rural Focus groups, community advisory board Training Com-munity
 Wu, 2010 [65] Asian Americans NR No NR Urban Expanded existing program NR Both
Combined Clinic- and Community-based Studies
 Redwood, 2011 [67] NR Low-income; uninsured 1 County No NR Urban Refined over time NR Com-munity
 Sarfaty, 2005 [62]; Sarfaty, 2006 [68] Ethnically diverse Low-income; uninsured 1 County No NR Urban By state NR Both
  1. NOS not otherwise specified, NR Not reported, PBRN Practice-based Research Network
  2. a Predominant minority race/ethnicity of study sample
  3. b May include clinics that are associated with the following systems: Hospital, Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC), health department