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Table 2 Risk of non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma according to smoking habits

From: The dose-response relationship between tobacco smoking and the risk of lymphomas: a case-control study

  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma
Controls (n = 1004) Cases (n = 571) OR (95% CI) Controls (n = 188) Cases (n = 188) OR (95% CI)
No. % No. % No. % No. %
Smoking status
 Never 426 42.4 239 41.9 1c 89 47.3 85 45.2 1c
 Former 296 29.5 146 25.6 0.91 (0.68–1.20) 33 17.6 23 12.2 0.83 (0.43–1.63)
 Current 282 28.1 186 32.6 1.18 (0.91–1.54) 66 35.1 80 42.6 1.50 (0.93–2.44)
Current
Smoking intensity (cig/day)a
  < 15 141 14.0 78 13.7 0.99 (0.71–1.39) 40 21.3 36 19.2 1.07 (0.61–1.88)
  ≥ 15 139 13.8 108 18.9 1.42 (1.02–1.97) 26 13.8 43 22.9 2.47 (1.25–4.87)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.04      p = 0.02
 Increase of 5 cig/day     1.07 (1.00–1.15)      1.28 (1.11–1.49)
Smoking duration (years)a, b
  < 30 131 13.1 80 14.0 1.38 (0.96–1.99) 34 18.1 33 17.6 1.03 (0.55–1.93)
  ≥ 30 151 15.0 105 18.4 1.04 (0.75–1.44) 32 17.0 47 25.0 2.15 (1.16–3.99)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.46      p = 0.03
Age at starting (years)a
  ≥ 18 130 13.0 75 13.1 1.00 (0.71–1.41) 24 12.8 25 13.3 1.35 (0.69–2.62)
  < 18 151 15.0 110 19.3 1.36 (0.99–1.88) 42 22.3 55 29.3 1.60 (0.93–2.77)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.07      p = 0.10
Former
Smoking intensity (cig/day)a
  < 15 139 13.9 69 12.1 0.93 (0.66–1.31) 16 8.5 9 4.8 0.72 (0.29–1.80)
  ≥ 15 156 15.6 77 13.5 0.91 (0.64–1.29) 17 9.0 14 7.5 1.07 (0.46–2.51)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.42      p = 0.49
 Increase of 5 cig/day     0.99 (0.92–1.06)      1.02 (0.83–1.24)
Smoking duration (years)a, b
  < 30 168 16.7 86 15.1 0.95 (0.69–1.31) 12 6.4 14 7.5 1.56 (0.66–3.72)
  ≥ 30 127 12.7 60 10.5 0.85 (0.58–1.25) 20 10.6 9 4.8 0.44 (0.17–1.13)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.34      p = 0.83
Age at starting (years)a
  ≥ 18 155 15.5 78 13.7 0.91 (0.65–1.28) 16 8.6 8 4.3 0.53 (0.19–1.46)
  < 18 139 13.9 65 11.4 0.87 (0.61–1.26) 16 8.6 15 8.0 1.17 (0.52–2.62)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.36      p = 0.49
Time since quitting (years)a
  ≥ 16 153 15.3 76 13.4 0.91 (0.64–1.30) 12 6.5 9 4.8 1.39 (0.47–4.11)
  < 16 140 14.0 67 11.8 0.86 (0.60–1.23) 19 10.2 13 7.0 1.10 (0.47–2.53)
 χ2 for trend      p = 0.39      p = 0.75
  1. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression model adjusted for gender, age, study center, years of education, and place of birth
  2. aThe sum does not add up to the total because of missing values. bFor HL, the cut-off was set at 15 years
  3. cReference category