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Table 1 Characteristics of the Sample according to the Local Control Modality

From: What is the impact of local control in Ewing sarcoma: analysis of the first Brazilian collaborative study group – EWING1

Variables Total sample Local Control Modality p
Surgery Surgery + Radiotherapy Radiotherapy
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
All patients 73 (100) 47 (64.4) 13 (17.8) 13 (17.8)  
Age group      0.753
  ≤ 15 years 51 (69.9) 34 (72.3) 8 (61.5) 9 (69.2)  
  > 15 years 22 (30.1) 13 (27.7) 5 (38.5) 4 (30.8)  
Sex      0.035
 Male 45 (61.6) 33 (70.2)a 4 (30.8) 8 (61.5)  
 Female 28 (38.4) 14 (29.8) 9 (69.2)a 5 (38.5)  
Risk group      <0.001
 Low 38 (52.1) 33 (70.2)a 5 (38.5) 0 (0.0)  
 High 35 (47.9) 14 (29.8) 8 (61.5) 13 (100)a  
Tumor size      0.124
  ≤ 8 cm 18/45 (40.0) 10/31 (32.3) 4/9 (44.4) 4/5 (80.0)  
  > 8 cm 27/45 (60.0) 21/31 (67.7) 5/9 (55.6) 1/5 (20.0)  
Necrosis Index      1.000
  ≤ 95% 28/50 (56.0) 23/42 (54.8) 5/8 (62.5) NA  
  > 95% 22/50 (44.0) 19/42 (45.2) 3/8 (37.5) NA  
LDH      0.052
  ≥ 1.5 x ULN 15/68 (22.1) 6/45 (13.3) 4/10 (40.0) 5/13 (38.5)  
  < 1.5 x ULN 53/68 (77.9) 39/45 (86.7) 6/10 (60.0) 8/13 (61.5)  
Recurrence      0.509
 No 53/68 (77.9) 34/46 (73.9) 10/12 (83.3) 9/10 (90.0)  
 Local 4/68 (5.9) 3/46 (6.5) 0/12 (0.0) 1/10 (10.0)  
 Systemic 11/68 (16.2) 9/46 (19.6) 2/12 (16.7) 0/10 (0.0)  
Site location      <0.001
 Spine 6 (8.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (7.7) 5 (38.5)a  
 Chest wall 10 (13.7) 6 (12.8) 4 (30.8)a 0 (0.0)  
 Pelvis 10 (13.7) 3 (6.4) 2 (15.4) 5 (38.5)a  
 Proximal extremity 21 (28.8) 17 (36.2)a 2 (15.4) 2 (15.4)  
 Distal extremity 22 (30.1) 19 (40.4)a 3 (23.1) 0 (0.0)  
 Other 4 (5.5) 2 (4.3) 1 (7.7) 1 (7.7)  
Radiation dose (Gy)b 50.4 (45–55.8) NA 50.4 (45–54.9) 50.4 (45–55.8) 0.801
  1. aStatistically significant association by adjusted residual analysis at 5% significance level
  2. bExpressed as median (25th–75th percentile)
  3. LDH lactate dehydrogenase, NA not applicable, ULN upper limit of normal