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Table 4 Univariate and Multiple Logistic Regression Evaluating Factors Associated with Enrollment

From: Most children with cancer are not enrolled on a clinical trial in Canada: a population-based study

Characteristics Enrolled N = 2533 Not Enrolled N = 6671 Percent Enrolled Univariate Regression Analysis Multiple Regression Analysis
OR (95% CI) P Value* OR (95% CI) P Value*
 Demographic Features
 Age at Diagnosis      <0.0001   0.450
  < 1 years 216 (8.5%) 775 (11.6%) 21.8 REF   REF  
  1–4 years 1078 (42.6%) 2277 (34.1%) 32.1 1.7 (1.4 to 2.0) <0.0001 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) 0.213
  5–9 years 620 (24.5%) 1704 (25.5%) 26.7 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 0.003 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3) 0.711
  10–14 years 619 (24.4%) 1915 (28.7%) 24.4 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) 0.099 1.0 (0.8 to 1.3) 0.714
 Sex
  Male 1405 (55.5%) 3556 (53.3%) 28.3 1.1 (1.0 to 1.2) 0.064 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.660
  Female 1128 (44.5%) 3115 (46.7%) 26.6 REF    
 Race      0.0003   0.033
  White 1793 (70.8%) 4376 (65.6%) 29.1 REF   REF  
  Asian 218 (8.6%) 691 (10.4%) 24.0 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.002 0.8 (0.6 to 0.9) 0.006
  Arab/West Asian 37 (1.5%) 142 (2.1%) 20.7 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) 0.015 0.7 (0.4 to 0.96) 0.032
  Aboriginal 53 (2.1%) 161 (2.4%) 24.8 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.174 0.8 (0.5 to 1.1) 0.189
  Black 66 (2.6%) 173 (2.6%) 27.6 0.9 (0.7 to 1.2) 0.628 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5) 0.654
  Latin American 25 (1.0%) 80 (1.2%) 23.8 0.8 (0.5 to 1.2) 0.241 0.8 (0.5 to 1.4) 0.485
  Other 50 (2.0%) 119 (1.8%) 29.6 1.0 (0.7 to 1.4) 0.883 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) 0.697
  Unknown 291 (11.5%) 929 (13.9%) 23.9 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.0002 1.1 (0.9 to 1.2) 0.488
 Diagnostic Era
  < 2007 1283 (50.7%) 3325 (49.8%) 27.8 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.488 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.966
  ≥ 2007 1250 (49.3%) 3346 (50.2%) 27.2 REF    
 Diagnosis      <0.0001   <0.0001
 Leukemia
  Acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1043 (41.2%) 1095 (16.4%) 48.8 17.0 (12.7 to 22.8) <0.0001 17.7 (12.9 to 24.4) <0.0001
  Acute myeloid leukemia 138 (5.4%) 257 (3.9%) 34.9 9.6 (6.8 to 13.6) <0.0001 9.0 (6.2 to 13.3) <0.0001
  Other leukemia 18 (0.7%) 148 (2.2%) 10.8 2.2 (1.2 to 3.8) 0.007 2.2 (1.2 to 4.2) 0.012
 Lymphoma
  Hodgkin lymphoma 130 (5.1%) 270 (4.0%) 32.5 8.6 (6.1 to 12.2) <0.0001 10.2 (7.0 to 15.0) <0.0001
  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma excluding Burkett’s lymphoma 90 (3.6%) 250 (3.7%) 26.5 6.4 (4.5 to 9.3) <0.0001 7.4 (4.9 to 11.0) <0.0001
  Burkitt’s lymphoma 37 (1.5%) 125 (1.9%) 22.8 5.3 (3.3 to 8.4) <0.0001 6.0 (3.7 to 9.8) <0.0001
  Other lymphoma 13 (0.5%) 47 (0.7%) 21.7 4.9 (2.5 to 9.7) <0.0001 6.7 (3.3 to 13.6) <0.0001
 Solid Tumors
  Ewing sarcoma 63 (2.5%) 101 (1.5%) 38.4 11.2 (7.3 to 17.0) <0.0001 13.6 (8.6 to 21.3) <0.0001
  Hepatoblastoma 22 (0.9%) 117 (1.8%) 15.8 3.4 (2.0 to 5.7) <0.0001 3.9 (2.2 to 6.8) <0.0001
  Neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma 237 (9.4%) 497 (7.5%) 32.3 8.5 (6.2 to 11.7) <0.0001 9.3 (6.5 to 13.2) <0.0001
  Osteosarcoma 78 (3.1%) 129 (1.9%) 37.7 10.8 (7.3 to 16.1) <0.0001 12.7 (8.2 to 19.8) <0.0001
  Rhabdomyosarcoma 121 (4.8%) 152 (2.3%) 44.3 14.2 (9.9 to 20.6) <0.0001 16.3 (11.0 to 24.4) <0.0001
  Wilms tumor 160 (6.3%) 264 (4.0%) 37.7 10.8 (7.7 to 15.3) <0.0001 11.8 (8.2 to 17.2) <0.0001
  Other solid tumor 146 (5.8%) 1100 (16.5%) 11.7 2.4 (1.7 to 3.3) <0.0001 2.6 (1.8 to 3.7) <0.0001
 CNS Tumors
  Astrocytoma 52 (2.1%) 930 (13.9%) 5.3 REF    
  Ependymoma 38 (1.5%) 159 (2.4%) 19.3 4.3 (2.7 to 6.7) <0.0001 4.5 (2.7 to 7.3) <0.0001
  Medulloblastoma 36 (1.4%) 136 (2.0%) 20.9 4.7 (3.0 to 7.5) <0.0001 4.6 (2.8 to 7.6) <0.0001
  Other brain tumor 111 (4.4%) 845 (12.7%) 11.6 2.3 (1.7 to 3.3) <0.0001 2.6 (1.8 to 3.7) <0.0001
 Socioeconomic Factors
 Median Km to Nearest Tertiary Care Center (Interquartile Range) 28.0 (12.4 to 99.4) 30.9 (12.0 to 118.2)   Per 100 km
0.96 (0.94 to 0.98)
<0.0001 Per 100 km
0.96 (0.94 to 0.98)
0.0005
 Income quintile      0.523   0.908
  1 (lowest) 452 (17.8%) 1280 (19.2%) 26.1 REF   REF  
  2 489 (19.3%) 1270 (19.0%) 27.8 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 0.257 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 0.445
  3 508 (20.1%) 1306 (19.6%) 28.0 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.201 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) 0.718
  4 522 (20.6%) 1321 (19.8%) 28.3 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.135 1.0 (0.9 to 1.2) 0.861
  5 (highest) 539 (21.3%) 1354 (20.3%) 28.5 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.109 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 0.900
  1. *P value by logistic regression
  2. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, REF reference