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Table 4 Predictors of 5-year survival in colorectal cancer patients

From: Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

Variables aCrude HR (95% CI) bAdjusted HR (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 1.00 1.00
 Male 1.13 (0.96–1.31) 1.41 (1.12–1.76)
Ethnicity
 Malays 1.00 1.00
 Chinese 1.26 (1.03–1.56) 1.41 (1.07–1.85)
 Indians 1.06 (0.79–1.42) 1.32 (0.78–1.71)
Preoperative carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) level
 Not elevated 1.00 1.00
 Elevated 2.31 (1.91–2.79) 2.13 (1.60–2.83)
Duke’s stages
 A&B 1.00 1.00
 C 1.66 (1.29–2.12) 1.68 (1.28–2.21)
 D 4.94 (3.78–6.45) 4.61 (3.39–6.28)
Urgency of surgery
 Elective 1.00 1.00
 Emergency 1.42 (1.11–1.82) 1.52 (1.07–2.15)
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aUnivariate Cox Proportional Hazard Regression analysis
  3. bMultivariate Cox Proportional Hazard Regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, co-morbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), tumour grades, and treatment modalities