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Table 4 Percentage attributable risk factor, relative risk, and actual incidence rates, in Males

From: Proportion of cancer in a Middle eastern country attributable to established risk factors

Risk factor Percentage attributable risk factor PAF (%) in Males in 2008 Projected incident cases in Lebanon 2018 (rate per 100,000). Data from Shamseddine et al. Number of cases in 2018 resulting from risk factorsa
Tobacco smoking, former smokers and current smokers Esophagus: 43% 0.6 6
Larynx: 74% 7.9 129
Lung: 79% 32.7 568
Bladder: 53% 41.2 480
Gastric: 24% 9.3 49
Liver: 23% 7.9 40
Pancreas: 25% 5.9 32
Body Mass Index (BMI), overweight and obese Colon: 22% 17.1 83
Rectal: 19% 4.4 18
Liver: 24% 7.9 42
Renal cell: 20% N/A  
EGCA: 38% N/A  
Pancreatic:15% 5.9 19
Physical activity, Low activity Gastroesophageal: 7% N/A  
Colorectal: 17% Colon 17.1, Rectal 80
  4.4  
Bladder: 4% 41.2 8
Low adherence to Mediterranean diet Gastric: 7% 9.3 14
Colorectal: 2% Colon 17.1, Rectal 4.4 9
Bladder: 4% 41.2 36
Alcohol, heavy drinkers Oropharyngeal: 34% 3.7 28
Esophagus: 31% 0.6 4
Liver: 7% 7.9 12
Colorectal:6% Colon 17.1, Rectal 4.4 28
H. Pylori infection Gastric: 50% 9.3 102
Air pollutiona (PM2.5 concentration above allowable levels) Lung: 13% 32.7 94
  1. N/A Data not available
  2. aassuming 4.5 million Lebanese nationals in 2018