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Table 1 Characteristics of participants, stratified by obesity (measured via BMI)

From: Effect of genetic variants and traits related to glucose metabolism and their interaction with obesity on breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women

Characteristic Non-obese group (BMI < 30.0) Obese group (BMI ≥ 30.0)
(n = 3675) (n = 1704)
n (%) n (%)
Age in years, median (range) 68 (50–79) 67 (50–71)*
Education
  ≤ High school 1272 (34.6) 701 (41.1)*
  > High school 2403 (65.4) 1003 (58.9)
Family history of diabetes mellitus
 No 2714 (73.9) 1122 (65.8)*
 Yes 961 (26.1) 582 (34.2)
Family history of cancer
 No 1327 (36.1) 567 (33.3)
 Yes 2348 (63.9) 1137 (66.7)
Family history of breast cancer
 No 3070 (83.5) 1428 (83.8)
 Yes 605 (16.5) 276 (16.2)
Family history of colorectal cancer
 No 3106 (84.5) 1430 (83.9)
 Yes 569 (15.5) 274 (16.1)
Cardiovascular disease ever
 No 3161 (86.0) 1430 (83.9)
 Yes 514 (14.0) 274 (16.1)
Hypertension ever
 No 2702 (73.5) 1026 (60.2)*
 Yes 973 (26.5) 678 (39.8)
High cholesterol requiring pills ever
 No 3178 (86.5) 1460 (85.7)
 Yes 497 (13.5) 244 (14.3)
Smoking status
 Never 1882 (51.2) 897 (52.6)*
 Past 1498 (40.8) 705 (41.4)
 Current 295 (8.0) 102 (6.0)
Lifetime partner
 Have never had sex 56 (1.5) 38 (2.2)
 Have had sex 3619 (98.5) 1666 (97.8)
Depressive symptoma
  < 0.06 3392 (92.3) 1556 (91.3)
  ≥ 0.06 283 (7.7) 148 (8.7)
METs·hour·week-1 b
  < 10 1875 (51.0) 1160 (68.1)*
  ≥ 10 1800 (49.0) 544 (31.9)
Total HEI-2005 score, median (range)c 68.7 (25.8–90.8) 65.7 (27.9–91.2)*
Dietary total sugars in g, median (range) 91.6 (4.6–350.2) 94.9 (10.8–474.5)*
Dietary alcohol per day in g, median (range) 1.506 (0.0–106.7) 0.561 (0.0–148.6)*
% calories from fatd
  < 40% 3057 (83.2) 1268 (74.4)*
  ≥ 40% 618 (16.8) 436 (25.6)
Waist circumference in cm, median (range) 81.0 (37.5–177.0) 100.0 (69.0–191.8)*
Waist-to-hip ratio, median (range) 0.798 (0.341–1.893) 0.849 (0.633–1.696)*
Oral contraceptive use
 Never 2448 (66.6) 1123 (65.9)
 Ever 1227 (33.4) 581 (34.1)
History of hysterectomy or oophorectomy
 No 2457 (66.9) 1006 (59.0)*
 Yes 1218 (33.1) 698 (41.0)
Age at menarche in years, median (range) 13 (≤ 9–≥ 17) 12 (≤ 9–≥ 17)*
Age at menopause in years, median (range) 50 (20–60) 50 (21–60)
Pregnancy history
 No 276 (7.5) 134 (7.9)
 Yes 3399 (92.5) 1570 (92.1)
Breastfeeding at least one month
 No 1649 (44.9) 812 (47.7)
 Yes 2026 (55.1) 892 (52.3)
Exogenous estrogen use
 No 2224 (60.5) 1122 (65.8)*
 Yes 1451 (39.5) 582 (34.2)
Glucose in mg/dl, median (range) 92.0 (39.0–369.0) 97.0 (62.0–347.0)*
Insulin in μIU/ml, median (range) 5.5 (0.5–119.4) 9.8 (0.3–57.0)*
HOMA-IR, median (range) 1.3 (0.1–25.1) 2.4 (0.1–42.3)*
  1. BMI body mass index, HEI-2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, MET metabolic equivalent
  2. *p < 0.05, chi-squared or Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test
  3. aDepression scales were estimated by using a short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and categorized with 0.06 as the cutoff to detect depressive disorders
  4. bPhysical activity was estimated from recreational physical activity combining walking and mild, moderate, and strenuous physical activity
  5. cHEI-2005 is a measure of diet quality that assesses adherence to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The total HEI score ranges from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating higher diet quality
  6. dParticipants were stratified by high-fat diet using 40% as a cutoff value relevant to glucose intolerance [47]