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Table 3 Examples of indirect interactions between infectious organisms and cancer through immunity for which the exact mechanism has been identified.TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor)

From: Infections and cancer: the “fifty shades of immunity” hypothesis

Impact on cancer Infectious organisms Mechanism implied Immune compartment Cancers References
Exacerbating Human Immunodeficiency virus Destruction of CD4 + T cells CD4+ T cells Several cancers (including those with infectious origin) [103106]
Fusobacterium nucleatum (intra-tumoral bacteria) Inhibition by contact between bacterial Fap2 protein and immune cell receptor TIGIT Natural Killer cells Various tumors [107]
  Cytomegalovirus (infecting cancer cells) Secretion of immunoregulatory protein (cmvIL-10) Dentritic cells Gliomas [108, 109]
Constraining Streptococcus pyogenes/ Serratia marcescens Secretion of high quantity of TNF Global immune system Sarcoma [110, 111]
Attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Local stimulation of CD4+ T cells and Th1 immune response. Diminution of Treg cells. T cell subsets Bladder cancer [112, 113]