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Table 1 Study participants’ characteristics

From: Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer

  Cases (n = 699) Controls (n = 958) P
Age, mean (SD1) 63.3 (8.1) 58.9 (9.8) <0.001
Body Mass Index, mean (SD) 28.2 (5.0) 29.2 (6.0) <0.001
Race/Ethnicity    0.25
 African Americans/African Descents 391 (55.9) 497 (51.9)  
 European Americans 242 (34.6) 378 (39.5)  
 Hispanic Americans 50 (7.2) 61 (6.4)  
 Others 16 (2.3) 22 (2.3)  
Dietary Calcium Intake (mg/day), median (IQR2) 506.7 (281.0–826.4) 502.0 (286.5–800.6) 0.79
Supplemental Calcium Intake (mg/day), median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0–162.0) 22.7 (0.0–162.0) 0.23
Total Calcium Intake (mg/day), median (IQR) 645.2 (370.0–1049.5) 600.1 (367.1–1019.0) 0.59
Dietary Vitamin D Intake (IU/day)3, median (IQR) 75.6 (32.1–152.7) 68.7 (28.5–147.9) 0.17
Supplemental Vitamin D Intake (IU/day), median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0–400.0) 26.8 (0.0–400.0) 0.02
Total Vitamin D Intake (IU/day), median (IQR) 237.2 (57.2–504.5) 245.8 (66.8–515.9) 0.25
Dietary Supplement Use, n (%) 94 (16.8) 185 (21.7) 0.02
Education, n (%)    <0.001
  < High School or High School 326 (51.3) 378 (41.0)  
 Some College, 4 Years of College 188 (29.6) 316 (34.3)  
 Master, PhD, and Professional Degree 122 (19.2) 227 (24.6)  
Income, n (%)    <0.001
  < $30,000 286 (42.2) 296 (31.8)  
 $30,000–60,000 159 (23.5) 239 (25.7)  
  ≥ $60,000 232 (34.3) 395 (42.5)  
Married or Living Like Married, n (%) 390 (56.0) 550 (57.8) 0.45
Smoking, n (%)    0.08
 Current Smoker 122 (17.6) 158 (16.7)  
 Yes, but Quit 267 (38.6) 321 (34.0)  
Alcohol Use, n (%)    0.02
 Yes, but Quit 149 (21.3) 201 (21.2)  
 Currently Drink 447 (64.0) 560 (58.9)  
Family History, n (%) 163 (23.3) 199 (12.5) <0.001
PSA, median (IQR) 6.5 (7.7) 1.2 (1.7) <0.001
Aggressive PCa
 Greater than High Risk PCa4, n (%) 157 (23.5)   
 Gleason Score 4 + 3 or Greater, n (%) 155 (24.3)   
 Gleason Score 4 + 4 or Greater, n (%) 91 (14.3)   
  1. 1Standard Deviation (SD)
  2. 2Interquartile Range (IQR)
  3. 3Vitamin D International Unit (IU, 1 IU = 0.025 μg)
  4. 4Based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk stratification for biochemical failure