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Table 1 Distribution of risk factors for breast cancer (n = 700), Early Determinants of Mammographic Density (EDMD) Study

From: Early life socioeconomic environment and mammographic breast density

  N (%) or mean ± SD
Age at mammogram (years) 43.1 ± 2.3
Race/ethnicity
 Non-hispanic white 546 (78.2)
 African-American 86 (12.3)
 Hispanic 40 (5.7)
 Asian/pacific-islander/other 26 (3.7)
Maternal education
 Less than high school 180 (25.9)
 High school graduate 289 (41.6)
 Trade school or some college 150 (21.6)
 College or higher education 75 (10.8)
Paternal education
 Less than high school 176 (27.4)
 High school graduate 246 (38.3)
 Trade school or some college 120 (18.7)
 College or higher education 101 (15.7)
Childhood family income ($)
  < 5000 228 (35.4)
 5000- < 8000 292 (45.3)
  ≥ 8000 125 (19.4)
Prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) exposure to maternal Smoking
 No 406 (59.9)
 Yes 272 (40.1)
Birthweight (kg) 3.4 ± 0.5
Weight at 4 years (kg) 16.8 ± 2.4
Age at menarche (years)
  < 12 135 (19.4)
 12 192 (27.6)
 13 200 (28.7)
  ≥ 14 169 (24.3)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.5 ± 6.4
Menopausal status
 Premenopausal 480 (69.7)
 Menopausal transition 120 (17.4)
 Postmenopausal 89 (12.9)
Adult education
 High school or less 130 (18.6)
 Trade school or some college 259 (37.0)
 Bachelor’s degree 214 (30.6)
 Master’s degree or higher 97 (13.9)
Adult household income
  < 50,000 162 (23.9)
 50,000- < 75,000 128 (18.9)
 75,000- < 100,000 140 (20.7)
  ≥ 100,000 247 (36.5)
Adult smoking status
 Never smoker 377 (53.9)
 Former smoker 219 (31.3)
 Current smoker 103 (14.7)
Recent alcohol intake (drinks/week)
 Non-drinker 251 (36.0)
  < 3 210 (30.1)
 3–7 147 (21.1)
  > 7 89 (12.8)
Recent physical exercise (minutes/week)
 No exercise 214 (30.6)
  < 100 170 (24.3)
 100–195 162 (23.2)
  ≥ 195 153 (21.9)
Mammographic density
 Percent breast density (%) 31.8 (18.7)
 Dense breast area (cm2) 35.8 (22.0)
 Non-dense breast area (cm2) 102.1 (75.0)