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Table 2 Baseline HRQOL and univariate analyses using continuous, dichotomized variables, C30 and HCC18 index scores for patients with complete HRQOL data (n = 472)a

From: Prognostic values of EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HCC18 index-scores in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma – clinical application of health-related quality-of-life data

  Mean ±SD Continuous variables Dichotomized variablesa
  HR [95% CI] p-value HR [95% CI] p-value
EORTC QLQ-C30
 Physical Functioning 72.27 23.74 0.432 [0.351–0.533] <0.0001 2.026 [1.571–2.612] <0.0001
 Role Functioning 74.61 32.60 0.517 [0.443–0.603] <0.0001 2.108 [1.645–2.702] <0.0001
 Emotional Functioning 70.67 25.48 0.777 [0.632–0.954] 0.0164 1.448 [1.100–1.908] 0.0084
 Social Functioning 76.80 24.68 0.698 [0.571–0.853] 0.0004 1.611 [1.162–2.234] 0.0042
 Cognitive Function 68.46 30.33 0.634 [0.531–0.756] <0.0001 1.573 [1.233–2.007] 0.0003
 Global Quality of Life 52.22 26.34 0.515 [0.417–0.635] <0.0001 1.611 [1.299–1.998] <0.0001
 Fatigue 42.93 30.23 1.973 [1.657–2.349] <0.0001 2.072 [1.672–2.568] <0.0001
 Nausea/Vomiting 11.26 21.41 2.050 [1.643–2.559] <0.0001 2.308 [1.679–3.173] <0.0001
 Pain 32.87 31.97 1.865 [1.584–2.197] <0.0001 2.108 [1.698–2.617] <0.0001
 Dyspnoea 29.73 31.46 1.396 [1.189–1.639] <0.0001 1.666 [1.314–2.113] <0.0001
 Insomnia 41.88 36.41 1.344 [1.162–1.556] <0.0001 1.415 [1.144–1.750] 0.0014
 Appetite loss 32.34 35.88 1.923 [1.668–2.217] <0.0001 2.360 [1.889–2.949] <0.0001
 Constipation 16.67 27.13 1.201 [0.999–1.444] 0.0512 1.368 [1.021–1.834] 0.0359
 Diarrhea 16.45 26.87 1.520 [1.252–1.845] <0.0001 1.666 [1.248–2.224] 0.0005
 Financial difficulties 51.20 37.22 1.353 [1.169–1.566] <0.0001 1.579 [1.276–1.954] <0.0001
 C30 index score 30.69 19.61 3.658 [2.726–4.909] <0.0001 - -
EORTC QLQ-HCC18
 Fatigue 35.23 25.86 2.381 [1.942–2.919] <0.0001 2.484 [1.968–3.136] <0.0001
 Body Image 25.35 22.98 2.261 [1.819–2.811] <0.0001 2.167 [1.718–2.733] <0.0001
 Jaundice 23.41 22.15 1.289 [1.024–1.623] 0.0307 1.271 [0.977–1.652] 0.0739
 Nutrition 26.96 21.35 2.934 [2.317–3.716] <0.0001 2.663 [2.026–3.502] <0.0001
 Pain 23.34 24.57 2.107 [1.717–2.587] <0.0001 1.871 [1.465–2.391] <0.0001
 Fever 6.60 14.39 1.568 [1.123–2.187] 0.0081 1.697 [0.929–3.099] 0.0851
 Sex life 28.74 34.76 1.213 [1.040–1.415] 0.0139 1.436 [1.128–1.828] 0.0033
 Abdominal swelling 33.33 35.43 1.721 [1.486–1.994] <0.0001 2.192 [1.752–2.743] <0.0001
 HCC18 index score 25.37 17.21 3.028 [2.340–3.919] <0.0001 - -
  1. C30 index-score = ∑ [(100-Physical functioning), (100-Role functioning), (100-Emotional functioning), (100-Cognitive functioning), (100-Social functioning), (100-global QOL), scores of Fatigue, Nausea/vomiting, Pain, Dyspnoea, Insomnia, Appetite loss, Constipation, Diarrhea, Financial Diffculty] ÷ 15
  2. HCC18 index-score = ∑ (scores of Fatigue, Body Image, Jaundice, Nutrition, Pain, Fever, Sex life, Abdominal distension) ÷ 8
  3. aIn dichotomization, worse (≥50 in symptoms/problem or <50 in functioning/global QOL) scores in QLQ-C30 were analyzed with respect to better scores; worse (≥50) scores in QLQ-HCC18 were analyzed with respect to better scores
  4. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, HRQOL health-related quality of life