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Table 1 Characteristics of 27 included studies for meta–analysis on prostate cancer and alcohol consumption

From: Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta–analysis

Author Study country Cases/Na Outcomeb Designc Age range Follow–up yrs Covariates assessd
Studies with both biases
 Stemmermann, [11] US 227/8006 M/M P–cohort 46–65 25.5 1,4
 Tavani et al., [12] Italy 281/880 Morb Hos–CC 25–79 u/a 1,2,4,5
 Breslow et al., [30] US 252/5766 M/M P–cohort 25–75 17.0 1,2,3
 Schuurman et al., [44] Netherlands 680/58279 Morb P–cohort 55–69 6.3 1,2
 Lund Nilsen et, [37] Norway 644/22895 M/M P–cohort 40–99 9.3 1
 Ellison, [34] Canada 145/3400 M/M R–cohort 50–84 23.0 1
 Sesso et al., [4] US 366/7612 M/M P–cohort 30–68 5.0 1,4,5,6
 Velicer et al., [46] US 816/34565 Morb P–cohort 50–76 4.0 1
 McGregor et al., [38] Canada 947/1986 Morb Pop–CC –79 u/a 1
 Sawada et al., [43] Japan 913/48218 Morb P–cohort 40–79 16.0 1,4,5
Studies with former drinker bias only
 Jain et al., [35] Canada 617/1254 Morb Pop–CC 48–92 u/a 1,4
 Putnam et al., [41] US 101/1572 M/M P–cohort 40–86 9.0 1
 Platz et al., [40] US 2479/47843 M/M P–cohort 40–75 12.0 1,3,5,6
 Weinstein et al., [47] Finland 1270/27111 M/M P–cohort 50–69 17.0 1,7
 Rohrmann et al., [42] Europee 2655/142647 M/M P–cohort 40–65 8.7 4,5
 Watters et al., [5] US 17227/294707 M/M P–cohort 50–71 7.0 1,2,3,4,5,6
Studies with occasional drinker bias only
 Hiatt et al., [9] US 238/43432 Morb P–cohort 30–99 4.6 1,2,3
 Andersson et al., [28] Sweden 256/508 Morb Pop–CC –79 u/a 1
 Hayes et al., [6] US 981/2296 Morb Pop–CC 40–79 u/a 1,3
 Baglietto et al., [29] Australia 732/16872 M/M P–cohort 27–70 10.3 1
 Breslow et al., [48] US 8362/323354 Mort P–cohort 18–99 8.3 1,2,3,5
Studies with neither abstainer bias
 De Stefani et al., [33] Uruguay 156/458 Morb Hos–CC 40–89 u/a 1,2,4
 Lumey et al., [36] US 699/2740 Morb Hos–CC 36–81 u/a 1,2,3
 Crispo et al., [32] Italy 2663/4114 Morb Hos–CC 46–74 u/a 1,2,5,6
 Chang et al., [31] Sweden 1499/2629 Morb Pop–CC 45–79 u/a 1
 Pelucchi et al., [39] Italy 1294/2745 Morb Hos–CC 46–79 u/a 1
 Sutcliffe et al., [45] US 3348/45433 M/M P–cohort 40–75 16.0 1,3,5,6
  1. Note: a N = cases + controls in a case–control study. bM/M = mortality and morbidity, Morb = morbidity and Mort = mortality. cP–cohort = prospective cohort, R–cohort = retrospective cohort, Pop–CC = population–based case–control, Hos–CC = hospital–based case–control. d1: age; 2: social status; 3: race; 4: smoking status; 5: body mass index; 6: exercise. e10 European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Sweden