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Table 2 Hazard Ratio and 95 % Confidence Intervals of Lung Cancer According to ICS and Pulmonary Infection Combinations in Patients with COPD

From: Post-inhaled corticosteroid pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia increases lung cancer in patients with COPD

  All patients with COPD
HR (95 % CI) P-value
Pulmonary infection combinations
 None Reference  
 Only ICS 0.88 (0.67–1.14) 0.314
 Only pneumonia 0.95 (0.62–1.46) 0.818
 Only TB 1.42 (0.89–2.26) 0.145
 TB+pneumonia 1.68 (0.78–3.65) 0.187
 Post-ICS pneumonia 1.17 (0.69–1.98) 0.554
 Post-ICS TB 2.42 (1.28–4.58) 0.007
 Post-ICS TB+pneumonia 2.37 (1.01–5.54) 0.046
Medications
 OCS 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.442
 LABA 1.18 (0.93–1.50) 0.177
 SABA 1.32 (1.07–1.64) 0.010
 Theophylline 1.21 (0.99–1.48) 0.052
 Statins 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 0.704
 Aspirin 0.89 (0.76–1.05) 0.173
Sex
 Men 2.76 (2.20–3.48) <0.001
 Women Reference  
Age group
 20–39 - -
 40–59 Reference  
 60–79 4.69 (3.28–6.69) <0.001
80 6.47 (4.42–9.48) <0.001
Urbanization
 High Reference  
 Mid 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 0.575
 Low 0.97 (0.77–1.23) 0.799
Comorbidities
 Chronic kidney disease 1.35 (0.94–1.93) 0.102
 Diabetes 0.99 (0.82–1.21) 0.967
 Hyperlipidemia 1.08 (0.85–1.36) 0.544
 Liver cirrhosis 0.84 (0.43–1.62) 0.599
 Smoking-related cancers 1.57 (0.91–2.73) 0.107
 Autoimmune disease 1.57 (1.07–2.32) 0.022
 Atopy dermatitis 0.67 (0.36–1.25) 0.208
 Rhinosinusitis 0.90 (0.75–1.08) 0.263
No. of outpatient visits for respiratory diseases within 2 years after index datea
 ≤15 Reference  
 >15 1.27 (1.03–1.56) 0.025
No. of inpatient visits for respiratory diseases within 2 years after index datea
 0 Reference  
 ≥1 1.07 (0.85–1.35) 0.582
  1. Reference was defined as the reference group
  2. CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HR hazard ratio, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, LABA long-acting inhaled beta-agonist, OCS oral corticosteroid, SABA short-acting beta-agonist, TB pulmonary tuberculosis
  3. aIndex date was defined as the date of initiation of ICS
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