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Table 1 Trends in the absolute ethnic inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality in Māori and Pacific males and females compared to European/Other, New Zealand census-linked mortality data 1981–2011

From: Ethnic inequalities in cancer incidence and mortality: census-linked cohort studies with 87 million years of person-time follow-up

Cancer Cohort (years) European/Other males Māori males Pacific males
Rate Linear trend p-value Rate Linear trend p-value Rate difference (CI) Linear trend p-value Rate ratio (CI) Rate Linear trend p-value Rate difference (CI) Linear trend p-value Rate ratio (CI)
Mortality
 Lung 1981–84 44.5 . 87.8 . 43.4 (24.4 to 62.4) . 1.98 (1.58–2.47) 23.5 . −21.0 (−39.1– −2.9) . 0.53 (0.25–1.14)
2006–11 20.5 <0.01 71.2 0.07 50.7 (42.6–58.8) 0.87 3.47 (3.06–3.94) 49.9 0.30 29.4 (17.9–40.9) 0.07 2.43 (1.92–3.08)
 Colorectal 1981–84 22.5 . 13.7 . −8.8 (−15.5– −2.2) . 0.61 (0.38–0.98) 7.5 . −15.0 (−25.6– −4.4) . 0.33 (0.08–1.35)
2006–11 17.4 0.05 20.4 0.15 3.1 (−1.1–7.3) <0.01 1.18 (0.96–1.45) 9.4 0.68 −7.9 (−11.8– −4.0) 0.10 0.54 (0.36–0.81)
 Prostate 1981–8 9.1 . 8.8 . −0.3 (−7.6–7.0) . 0.97 (0.42–2.21) 26.2 . 17.1 (−14.5–48.6) . 2.87 (0.85–9.63)
2006–11 9.3 0.86 18.5 0.01 9.2 (4.8–13.7) <0.01 1.99 (1.55–2.56) 10.0 0.23 0.7 (−4.7–6.1) 0.32 1.07 (0.62–1.85)
 Stomach 1981–84 8.7 . 24.3 . 15.6 (6.2–25.0) . 2.80 (1.87–4.20) 35.2 . 26.6 (−1.5–54.6) . 4.07 (1.82–9.10)
2006–11 3.8 <0.01 13.2 0.15 9.4 (6.1–12.7) 0.57 3.47 (2.62–4.59) 9.7 0.04 5.8 (1.1–10.6) 0.07 2.53 (1.53–4.18)
 Melanoma 1981–84 5.6 . 0.8 . −4.8 (−6.6– −3.1) . 0.14 (0.02–0.97) . . . . .
2006–11 7.1 . 1.9 . −5.1 (−6.6– −3.6) . 0.28 (0.14–0.54) 1.6 . −5.5 (−7.2– −3.7) . 0.23 (0.08–0.61)
All cancers 1981–84 147.2 . 219.7 . 72.5 (43.5–101.4) . 1.49 (1.31–1.71) 173.3 . 26.1 (−31.0–83.1) . 1.18 (0.85–1.64)
2006–11 112.2 <0.01 214.3 0.66 102.0 (88.1–116.0) 0.17 1.91 (1.78–2.04) 148.4 0.20 36.2 (17.5–54.9) 0.94 1.32 (1.17–1.50)
Incidence
 Lung 1981–86 50.9 . 91.2 . 40.3 (26.7 to 54.0) . 1.79 (1.54 to 2.09) 56.5 . 5.7 (−26.1 to 37.4) . 1.11 (0.63 to 1.95)
2006–11 25.6 <0.01 78.9 0.08 53.3 (44.8 to 61.8) 0.69 3.08 (2.74 to 3.47) 49.3 0.15 23.7 (12.3 to 35.2) 0.70 1.93 (1.52 to 2.44)
 Colorectal 1981–86 48.8 . 24.5 . −24.3 (−32.1 to −16.4) . 0.50 (0.37 to 0.69) 22.3 . −26.5 (−40.1 to −12.9) . 0.46 (0.25 to 0.84)
2006–11 47.4 0.76 42.9 <0.01 −4.5 (−10.7 to 1.8) <0.01 0.91 (0.78 to 1.05) 29.8 0.94 −17.6 (−26.0 to −9.3) 0.89 0.63 (0.48 to 0.83)
 Prostate 1981–86 27.7 . 32.7 . 5.0 (−5.5 to 15.5) . 1.18 (0.86 to 1.63) 20.7 . −7.0 (−30.0 to 16.0) . 0.75 (0.25 to 2.27)
2006–11 110.1 <0.01 101.0 <0.01 −9.1 (−18.8 to 0.6) 0.11 0.92 (0.83 to 1.01) 88.2 0.01 −21.9 (−36.6 to −7.2) 0.07 0.80 (0.68 to 0.95)
 Stomach 1981–86 11.5 . 18.9 . 7.4 (1.8 to 13.1) . 1.65 (1.21 to 2.24) 50.1 . 38.6 (8.6 to 68.6) . 4.37 (2.38 to 8.00)
2006–11 5.5 <0.01 18.7 0.44 13.2 (9.2 to 17.2) 0.53 3.42 (2.69 to 4.34) 15.0 0.13 9.6 (4.2 to 14.9) 0.31 2.75 (1.89 to 3.99)
 Melanoma 1981–86 21.1 . 6.4 . −14.7 (−18.0 to −11.5) . 0.30 (0.19 to 0.48) 3.6 . −17.5 (−21.8 to −13.2) . 0.17 (0.06 to 0.53)
2006–11 53.3 <0.01 8.0 0.11 −45.3 (−48.3 to −42.2) <0.01 0.15 (0.11 to 0.20) 3.2 0.78 −50.1 (−53.0 to −47.2) <0.01 0.06 (0.03 to 0.12)
 Liver* 1981–86 1.5 . 8.7 . 7.3 (3.8 to 10.8) . 5.95 (3.73 to 9.51) 16.3 . 14.8 (7.1 to 22.6) . 11.12 (6.51 to 19.0)
2006–11 3.8 0.01 16.5 0.02 12.8 (9.4 to 16.1) 0.04 4.39 (3.46 to 5.58) 19.3 0.82 15.5 (8.9 to 22.1) 0.64 5.12 (3.55 to 7.38)
First cancers^ 1981–86 271.2 . 309.0 . 37.8 (12.2 to 63.3) . 1.14 (1.05 to 1.24) 324.8 . 53.6 (−12.7 to 119.9) . 1.20 (0.98 to 1.47)
2006–11 401.8 <0.01 427.1 <0.01 25.3 (5.6 to 45.0) 0.24 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11) 324.2 0.47 −77.6 (−105 to −50.1) 0.02 0.81 (0.74 to 0.88)
   European/Other females Māori females Pacific females
Cancer Cohort Rate Linear trend p-value Rate Linear trend p-value Rate difference (CI) Linear trend p-value Rate ratio (CI) Rate Linear trend p-value Rate difference (CI) Linear trend p-value Rate ratio (CI)
Mortality
 Lung 1981–84 12.1 . 55.7 . 43.7 (29.0–58.3) . 4.62 (3.49–6.12) 6.1 . −5.9 (−13.1–1.2) . 0.51 (0.16–1.62)
2006–11 16.1 . 64.6 . 48.5 (41.8–55.2) . 4.01 (3.56–4.52) 20.4 . 4.3 (−1.5–10.0) . 1.26 (0.95–1.68)
 Colorectal 1981–84 19.3 . 6.7 . −12.6 (−17.4– −7.8) . 0.35 (0.18–0.68) 3.5 . −15.8 (−21.4– −10.2) . 0.18 (0.04–0.85)
2006–11 13.6 . 11.4 . −2.2 (−5.4–1.0) . 0.84 (0.64–1.11) 10.0 . −3.6 (−7.7–0.5) . 0.74 (0.49–1.11)
 Breast 1981–84 25.6 . 31.3 . 5.7 (−4.0–15.3) . 1.22 (0.89–1.67) 18.7 . −6.9 (−21.4–7.5) . 0.73 (0.34–1.57)
2006–11 18.2 <0.01 37.8 <0.01 19.6 (14.5–24.6) <0.01 2.07 (1.80–2.39) 27.9 0.53 9.7 (3.3–16.1) 0.13 1.53 (1.21–1.94)
 Stomach 1981–84 3.5 . 13.3 . 9.8 (3.8–15.9) . 3.80 (2.33–6.18) 10.7 . 7.2 (−5.3–19.7) . 3.05 (0.94–9.89)
2006–11 1.6 . 9.4 . 7.8 (5.4–10.3) . 5.88 (4.26–8.13) 10.1 . 8.5 (4.3–12.6) . 6.30 (4.00–9.92)
 Melanoma 1981–84 3.5 . 0.4 . −3.1 (−4.2– −2.0) . 0.12 (0.02–0.86) 1.6 . −1.9 (−5.2–1.4) . 0.46 (0.06–3.31)
2006–11 3.6 . 0.9 . −2.7 (−3.5– −1.9) . 0.25 (0.12–0.51) 0.7 . −2.9 (−4.0– −1.9) . 0.19 (0.05–0.76)
All cancers^ 1981–84 110.6 . 182.8 . 72.2 (47.5–97.0) . 1.65 (1.44–1.90) 100.8 . −9.8 (−46.3–26.8) . 0.91 (0.63–1.31)
2006–11 92.6 <0.01 202.0 0.09 109.4 (97.4–121.4) 0.01 2.18 (2.05–2.32) 134.8 0.08 42.2 (27.4–57.0) 0.03 1.46 (1.30–1.63)
Incidence
 Lung 1981–86 14.9 . 45.7 . 30.9 (21.4 to 40.3) . 3.08 (2.48 to 3.82) 9.1 . −5.7 (−12.0 to 0.5) . 0.61 (0.31 to 1.21)
2006–11 21.0 0.02 74.3 0.07 53.3 (46.1 to 60.5) 0.09 3.53 (3.17 to 3.94) 23.4 0.03 2.4 (−3.9 to 8.6) 0.07 1.11 (0.85 to 1.46)
 Colorectal 1981–86 43.1 . 18.5 . −24.6 (−30.0 to −19.2) . 0.43 (0.33 to 0.57) 24.5 . −18.5 (−33.0 to −4.0) . 0.57 (0.32 to 1.03)
2006–11 37.8 0.21 24.6 0.05 −13.2 (−17.5 to −8.8) <0.01 0.65 (0.55 to 0.77) 20.5 0.75 −17.3 (−23.1 to −11.4) 0.21 0.54 (0.41 to 0.72)
 Breast 1981–86 69.4 . 69.1 . −0.3 (−10.7 to 10.1) . 1.00 (0.86 to 1.16) 67.5 . −1.9 (−22.4 to 18.5) . 0.97 (0.72 to 1.32)
2006–11 95.8 0.03 140.1 <0.01 44.3 (35.2 to 53.4) <0.01 1.46 (1.37 to 1.57) 116.0 0.05 20.2 (7.6 to 32.8) 0.40 1.21 (1.09 to 1.35)
 Stomach 1981–86 4.9 . 14.7 . 9.8 (5.0 to 14.6) . 2.98 (2.10 to 4.22) 15.9 . 11.0 (−1.3 to 23.3) . 3.23 (1.47 to 7.07)
2006–11 2.3 <0.01 13.6 0.96 11.3 (8.4 to 14.2) 0.32 5.84 (4.47 to 7.64) 8.7 0.14 6.4 (2.6 to 10.2) 0.34 3.73 (2.35 to 5.93)
 Melanoma 1981–86 29.2 . 6.2 . −23.0 (−26.2 to −19.8) . 0.21 (0.14 to 0.33) 4.1 . −25.2 (−30.0 to −20.3) . 0.14 (0.05 to 0.43)
2006–11 48.8 <0.01 7.7 0.23 −41.1 (−43.8 to −38.4) <0.01 0.16 (0.12 to 0.20) 2.5 0.54 −46.4 (−48.9 to −43.9) <0.01 0.05 (0.03 to 0.10)
 Liver* 1981–86 0.9 . 6.8 . 5.8 (1.1 to 10.5) . 7.23 (3.38 to 15.5) 4.6 . 3.7 (−1.5 to 8.9) . 4.93 (1.53 to 15.9)
2006–11 1.5 . 4.6 . 3.1 (1.5 to 4.8) . 3.14 (2.08 to 4.74) 3.8 . 2.4 (−0.2 to 4.9) . 2.62 (1.32 to 5.22)
 Cervix* 1981–86 11.9 . 39.8 . 27.9 (19.6 to 36.2) . 3.35 (2.67 to 4.19) 25.1 . 13.2 (1.9 to 24.4) . 2.11 (1.34 to 3.32)
2006–11 5.0 <0.01 14.2 <0.01 9.2 (6.4 to 12.0) 0.03 2.84 (2.25 to 3.59) 9.7 0.08 4.7 (1.3 to 8.1) 0.40 1.95 (1.35 to 2.81)
 Endometrial* 1981–86 11.8 . 18.6 . 6.8 (1.9 to 11.8) . 1.58 (1.20 to 2.07) 22.9 . 11.1 (−1.7 to 23.9) . 1.94 (1.10 to 3.41)
2006–11 12.6 0.25 27.5 0.17 14.9 (10.7 to 19.1) 0.20 2.18 (1.85 to 2.57) 49.8 <0.01 37.2 (29.1 to 45.3) <0.01 3.95 (3.31 to 4.71)
First cancers^ 1981–86 258.0 . 308.0 . 50.0 (27.0 to 73.0) . 1.19 (1.11 to 1.29) 277.3 . 19.2 (−26.3 to 64.8) . 1.07 (0.91 to 1.27)
2006–11 344.7 0.01 419.9 <0.01 75.2 (58.5 to 91.9) 0.22 1.22 (1.17 to 1.27) 335.1 0.09 −9.6 (−32.0 to 12.9) 0.33 0.97 (0.91 to 1.04)
  1. Note: *For liver cancer only incidence data were available due to small numbers in mortality data. ^Incidence is first cancer incidence in the follow-up period, mortality is any cancer mortality in the follow-up period. All rates, rate differences and rate ratios are age-standardised using the WHO World Standard Population. Cancers were selected for inclusion if they had a significant incidence rate difference in an ethnic comparison in at least four of the six cohort periods
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