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Table 1 Summary of in vitro cancer stem cell models based on cancer cell reprogramming

From: In vitro models of cancer stem cells and clinical applications

Type of cancer Species Cancer cell line/tumour Reprogramming factors Characterization of the pluripotency state Teratoma ? Chimera ? Tumour description Ref.
Gastro intestinal cancer Pancreatic cancer Human Primary solid tumour from patients Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Nanog, Oct4, Rex1, Ssea-4, sphere formation and differentiation into three germ layers Yes - PanIN precursors to PDAC, evolution to the invasive stage [69]
Liver cancer Human Cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5 mir-302 Nanog Oct4 Sox2, Rex1, alkaline phosphatase activity, sphere formation and differentiation into three germ layers - - - [99]
Human Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Nanog, Oct4, Klf4, Rex1, Ssea-4, Tra-1-60, sphere formation and differentiation into three germ layers - - - [56]
Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc c-Myc, Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Nanog, Rex1, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Tra-2-49, Ssea-4, multi-differentiation potential into three germ layers - - - [60]
Cholangio
carcinoma
Human Cancer cell line HuCC-T1   - Enhanced tumorigenicity
Colorectal cancer Human Cancer cell line DLD-1 - - -
Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Rex1, Ssea-4, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Tra-2-49, sphere formation and differentiation into three germ layers - - - [57]
Human Cancer cell lines SW480 and SW620 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Sox2, Oct4, Lin28, sphere formation - - Enhanced tumorigenicity [59]
Human Cancer cell line SW480 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 Sphere formation - - Enhanced tumorigenicity [98]
Leukaemia Human Cancer cell line KBM7 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Oct4, Sox2, Rex1, FGF4, TDGF1, Nanog, GDF3, Lin28, Zic3, CD9, Tra-1-81, alkaline phosphatase activity, sphere formation Yes - - [66]
Human CD34+ cells from patients with CML Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog, Lin28, Rex1, Ssea-4, Tra-1-60 Yes - - [67]
Human Bone marrow mononuclear cells from patient with CML Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Lin28, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, GDF3, Rex1, GDF3, Ssea-3, Ssea-4, TrA-1-60, Tra-1-81, alkaline phosphatase activity Yes - - [68]
Lung cancer Human Cancer cell lines H358 and H460 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Nanog, Sox2, FGF4, Oct4, Tra-1-60, alkaline phosphatase activity, telomerase activity, sphere formation and differentiation into three germ layers - - - [54]
Cancer cell line A549 Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28, HIF Alkaline phosphatase activity (partial reprogramming) - - Highly aggressive malignant solid tumors, high mitotic index, local invansiveness [55]
Oct4, Nanog Oct4, Nanog, sphere formation - - Enhanced tumorigenicity and metastasis [32]
Murine Lewis lung mouse carcinoma cell line LLC Conditioned medium for carcinoma cells (role of microenvironment) Oct3, Oct4, Nanog, Rex1, Ras, Esg1, Cripto Yes - Spheroid and tumor formation in mice, high mitotic index, angiogenesis in vivo [83]
Sarco
mas
Osteosarcoma Human Cancer cell lines SAOS2, HOS, MG63 Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28, Klf4 and c-Myc Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28, Klf4, c-Myc, Tra-1-81, Ssea-4, Rex, alkaline phosphatase activity - - - [61]
Liposarcoma Human Cancer cell line SW872
Ewing’s sarcoma Human Cancer cell line SKNEP
Human Cancer cell line CHLA-10 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog Tra1-160, Ssea-3, Ssea-4, alkaline phosphatase activity Yes - Various levels of undifferentiated cells, embryoid body and tumor formation in mice [110]
Breast Cancer Human Cancer cell line MCF-7 Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc Sox2, Ssea-1, Ssea-4, Tra-1–60, Tra-1–81, alkaline phosphatase activity, sphere formation   - Enhanced tumorigenicity, highly aggressive tumors [63]
Sox2 Ssea-4 - - Enhanced tumorigenicity [64]
Murine Mammary carcinoma cell line MCE12 - - - - - [83]
Prostate cancer Human Prostate cancer-associated stromal cells from primary tumours Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 Oct4, Nanog, Lin28, Sox2, alkaline phosphatase activity - - - [65]
Human Cancer cell line PC3 mir-302 Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Ssea-3, Ssea-4, sphere formation and differentiation into neuronal cells Yes - - [53]
Melanoma Murine Cancer cell line Colo mir-302 Sphere formation and differentiation into neuronal cells   - - [53]
Cancer cell line R545 Oct4, Klf4, c-Myc - Yes Yes - [52]
Melanoma cell line B16 - - - - - [83]