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Table 2 Associations between environmental, maternal, and reproductive factors and ALL risk among Egyptian children

From: Environmental, maternal, and reproductive risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Egypt: a case-control study

Variable Cases n = 299 Controls n = 351 OR (95 % CI) Adjusted ORa (95 % CI) Adjusted ORb (95 % CI)
Father cigarette smoking during pregnancy period N (%) 138 (46.2) 185* (53.2) 0.75 (0.55-1.03) 0.75 (0.55-1.03) 0.82 (0.60-1.12)
Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from sources other than the husband N (%) 52 (17.4) 5 (1.4) 14.6 (5.74 to 37.0) 14.26 (5.59 to 36.30) 15.07 (6.11 to 40.55)
Amount of smoke in the room (for those reported exposure to ETS). (heavy versus Light) N (%) 25/52 (48.1) 5/5 (100.0) 1.20 (1.02-1.40) NA NA
Hair dye use N (%) 56 (18.7) 51 (14.5) 1.44 (0.95 to 2.19) 1.36 (0.89 to 2.07) 1.25 (0.81 to 1.92)
Number of pregnancies (Mean) 3.2 3.5 0.91 (0.84 to 1.00) 0.94 (0.86 to 1.03) 0.98 (0.89 to 1.07)
Number of deliveries N (%)
 1 39 (13.0) 33 (9.4) Reference Reference Reference
 2 114(38.1) 116 (33.0) 0.83 (0.48 to 1.40) 0.93 (0.54 to 1.60) 1.15 (0.65 to 2.03)
 3 86 (28.7) 115 (32.7) 0.63 (0.36 to 1.08) 0.74 (0.42 to 1.30) 0.99 (0.55 to 1.78)
 4+ 60 (20.0) 87 (24.7) 0.58 (0.33 to 1.03) 0.73 (0.40 to 1.35) 1.36 (0.70 to 2.62)
Number of siblings (Mean) 2.6 2.9 0.80 (0.70 to 0.92) 0.91 (0.81 to 1.03) 0.97 (0.86 to 1.09)
Birth order (Mean) 2.2 2.3 0.90 (0.80 to 1.01) 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96) 0.89 (0.77 to 1.02)
 Cesarean section N (%) 121 (40.4) 89 (23.3) 2.01 (1.44 to 2.81) 1.90 (1.35 to 2.66) 1.68 (1.18 to 2.38)
 Non-term birth N (%) 54 (18.0) 7 (1.9) 10.80 (4.85 to 24.2) 10.61 (4.73 to 23.7) 10.66 (4.72 to 24.1)
Induction of Ovulation N (%) 26 (8.6) 13 (3.7) 2.47 (1.25 to 4.9) 2.53 (1.27 to 5.05) 2.51 (1.24 to 5.05)
  1. aadjusted for child age and sex
  2. badjusted for child age and sex, and maternal educational level
  3. *2 controls missing data
  4. NA Not Applicable