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Table 3 Comparison of the advanced technologies deployed for circulating tumor DNA

From: PNA clamping-assisted fluorescence melting curve analysis for detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in the circulating tumor DNA of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Product Mutyper BEAMing castPCR NGS Digital PCR
Technology PNA-based mutant enriched PCR and melting curve analysis Digital PCR and flow cytometry TaqMan-based mutant enriched PCR Next generation sequencing Droplet digital PCR
Sample 10 ng (plasma, 1–2 ml) (plasma, 2 ml) 10 ng 10–250 ng 10 ng
Genotyping YES YES YES YES YES
Multiplex YES YES NO YES NO
Running time/Workflow <3 h/Sample 10 days/complicated <3 h/sample 2 days/complicated 2 days/complicated
Machine Real time PCR Droplet digital PCR, Flow cytometry Real time PCR Library machine/PCR/NGS sequencer Droplet digital PCR/Droplet generator
Sensitivity 0.1–0.01 % 0.1–0.01 % 0.1 % 1–5 % 0.1–0.01 %
Advantages Only a real-time PCR system is required; higher sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility; multiplexing; and short run time. Quantitative analysis; multiplexing Requires only a real-time PCR system; and short run time. Multiplexing (target gene panel); Barcoding samples; Quantitative analysis; Detects de novo mutations. Quantitative analysis
Disadvantages Cannot detect novel mutations Cannot detect novel mutations; requires an expensive system; and a longer assay time. Cannot detect novel mutations or perform multiplexing. Requires an expensive system; and longer assay time. Requires an expensive system; longer assay time; and cannot detect de novo mutations.